Accessibility

Font Size

100% 150% 200%

Background Colour

Default Contrast
Close Reset

Doune Castle

Castle (14th Century)

Site Name Doune Castle

Classification Castle (14th Century)

Canmore ID 24738

Site Number NN70SW 1

NGR NN 72849 01071

Datum OSGB36 - NGR

Permalink http://canmore.org.uk/site/24738

Ordnance Survey licence number 100057073. All rights reserved.
Canmore Disclaimer. © Copyright and database right 2019.

Toggle Aerial | View on large map

Digital Images


First 100 images shown. See the Collections panel (below) for a link to all digital images.

Administrative Areas

  • Council Stirling
  • Parish Kilmadock
  • Former Region Central
  • Former District Stirling
  • Former County Perthshire

Archaeology Notes

NN70SW 1 72849 01071

(NN 7284 0104) Doune Castle (NR).

OS 6" map, (1958).

Doune Castle - late 13th century. (Full history and description).

W D Simpson 1962 (Guide book).

Doune Castle is as described and illustrated by Simpson.

Visited by OS (JLD) 26 May 1953.

Foundations of a wall only 0.5m thick can be traced on the top of the slope surrounding the castle, on the east and south sides and for a short distance on the north.

A ditch with outer rampart lies to the north of the castle - two ditches on the south tend to merge with the natural/ natural undulations of the ground. A steep natural slope on the west and a steep artificial slope on the east enhance the defensive qualities of the site.

At NN 7291 0109 there is a vaulted passage, 5.5m long and 0.6m wide, running into the ground. Although traditionally a passage to the castle, it is the entrance to an ice-house, used in the mid-18th century but now sealed. (Information from the Custodian, Doune Castle). South of the castle and beyond the earthworks, an area of disturbed ground, centred on NN 7286 0090, contains the slight grass-covered remains of enclosures and possible buildings, and amorphous remains of other possible enclosures and buildings, associated with the castle (Information from the Custodian, Doune Castle).

Revised at 1/2500.

A watching brief was undertaken during the resurfacing of the access road at Doune Castle. An overall length of 18m of drainage trench was excavated to a depth of 30cm. No finds or features of archaeological interest were made.

Sponsor: Central Regional Council

L Main and W Anderson 1989.

Excavations were carried out in 1986 by J Cannell on behalf of Historic Scotland at three locations within and adjacent to Doune Castle.

It was proposed to lay out a new visitors car park on marshy ground 250m N of the castle. A watching brief was undertaken while machines dug two drainage trenches across the E of the area which proved to be archaeologically sterile.

An area 3m NS by 5m EW, in the NE corner of the courtyard between the ruined E range and the gatehouse, was cleared of modern debris. A disturbed cobbled surface was provided with a shallow drain through its entrance into the courtyard. The area may be the remains of a small stable block.

The circular vault of the NE tower within the gatehouse has been long identified as a well chamber. Excavations inside the vault exposed the massive stone foundations of the tower. A central pit filled with dumped burnt material measured 1.65m diameter at the surface, narrowed sharply. Undoubtedly not a well, the pit may have held a large post used in the construction of the tower.

Sponsor : SDD-HBM

J Cannell 1986.

NN 7285 0107 The clearance of loose material in each of the window embrasures and mural chambers off the second-floor hall took place in January 1998. The debris in question proved to be general detritus, dust and rubbish which had accumulated since the abandonment of the castle, but which pre-dated the extensive late 19th-century restoration works enacted on the lower floors and adjacent structures. Within the window embrasure located in the N wall was evidence of a resurfacing or patching which utilised broken floor tile and compacted, clay-rich silt. These rather crude repairs pre-dated the restoration works and possibly reflect late medieval occupation.

A further watching brief was carried out in January and February 1998 to examine and record a number of slit trenches cut into the soil and gravel embankment W of the Kitchen Tower. The embankment comprises mortar-rich gravel covered by a damp earth deposit.

A total of 13 trenches were cut. The SW corner of the tower foundations were found, comprising irregularly shaped flat slabs of local red sandstone, with three courses (240mm) visible, and extending for 600mm beyond the visible wall face. The remaining trenches revealed the make-up of the embankment, and traces of the natural slope which had been enhanced to form it.

Sponsor: Historic Scotland

G Ewart and D Stewart 1998

NN 7285 0107 Watching briefs were maintained at two sites in the vicinity of Doune Castle during the Forth Valley Sewer Renewal Project. The areas affected were the driveway leading southwards to the castle itself, and an area to the W of Doune Fire Station, in the vicinity of the Roman fort discovered in 1984 by aerial reconnaissance.

The four trenches revealed recently disturbed horizons associated with the fitting of the earlier sewer, although the southernmost trench, nearest the castle, revealed possible evidence for a denuded earthen bank or platform.

A single trench of c 150m length was excavated to the W of the fire station, along the top of a steep slope down to a small tributary of the River Teith. Nothing of archaeological significance was revealed, and the site of the Roman fort was not affected. The slope was demonstrated to be a natural profile, with some recent landscaping associated with the construction of the modern housing scheme to the E.

Sponsor: East of Scotland Water.

G Ewart and A Dunn 1999

NN 7285 0107 A watching brief was carried out over a period of two days in March 1999, while Historic Scotland staff excavated a shallow trench against the N side of the inner courtyard in order to construct a footpath of grass bars. On removing the turf and topsoil it became clear that a cobbled surface survived beneath the current turf in this part of the courtyard.

Sponsor: Historic Scotland

D Stewart 1999

NN 7265 0142 An archaeological watching brief was carried out during the excavation of a trench to facilitate the installation of a power cable to a nearby sewage pumping station. The trench lay within the Scheduled area around Doune Castle. During the watching brief no archaeological features were noted, and no artefacts were recovered.

Sponsor: Scottish Hydro-Electric plc.

A Duffy 1999

NN 7285 0107 A watching brief was carried out during the excavation of a shallow trench in the N part of the castle courtyard (NMRS NN70SW 1), in order to create a track for a paved footpath. Up to 150mm of turf and topsoil within the zone of the new footpath was removed, exposing the tops of cobble stones across the entire area. Following this initial clearance the cobbles were cleaned and recorded. Features of interest included occasional remnants of a surface drain original to the cobbled surface, and which drained the courtyard on its N side. The shallow drain was made of red sandstone slabs edge-to-edge positioned 2m S of the inner face of the N wall and running E-W towards the courtyard entrance. The drain could only be seen within the excavated area at the base of the NE stair and at the entrance to the vault below the NW external stair. It was clear that both the external stairs are late additions to the fabric of the castle and that they have been built over or have superseded the cobbling of the courtyard. The E-W drain disappears into the fabric of the stair at the entrance to the W vault. An area measuring some 32m2 has now been opened up along the N side of the courtyard, in most of which the (possibly original) cobbling of the castle courtyard is intact.

Sponsor: Historic Scotland

D Stewart 2000

NN 7285 0107 A watching brief was undertaken in February 2001 at Doune Castle (NMRS NN70SW 1) while a trench was cut for a freshwater pipe to serve the new toilet opposite the castle car park. The work took place on the edge of the steep high slope, potentially the site of a defensive structure.

No man-made structural elements could be seen associated with any part of the trenching. There were no finds.

Sponsor: Historic Scotland

D Stewart and G Ewart 2001

NN 728 010 Five trenches were excavated in September 2002 within and around a building against the E curtain wall of the castle. Several earlier wall remains were found, relating to walls shown on an earlier plan of the site, though there were some differences in detail. The continuation of the W wall to the S was confirmed, as was the presence of a central dividing wall. A small alcove built in against the S wall proved to be a substantial structure, and use as a kiln or oven was suggested. A trench against the curtain wall revealed either a thickening of the wall or further buildings.

Archive to be deposited in the NMRS.

Sponsor: HS

G Ewart 2003

NN 7280 0115 A watching brief was undertaken on 16 May 2006 during the excavation of eight holes for signposts around Doune Castle. The holes were excavated to a maximum width of 0.4 x 1m deep.

No archaeological deposits were encountered and no artefacts recovered.

Archive to be deposited in NMRS.

Sponsor: Stirling Council.

Lorna Main, 2006.

Scheduled as 'Doune Castle, [including] its defences and earthworks.'

Information from Historic Scotland, scheduling document dated 26 April 2011.

Architecture Notes

EXTERNAL REFERENCE:

See: Scottish Magazine, July 1928, p. 67.

(Undated) information in NMRS.

Activities

Publication Account (1985)

The castle occupies a naturally well defended promontory above the confluence of the River Teith with the Ardoch Bum. Although the visitors eye is instinctively drawn to the impressive and forbidding bulk of the masonry castle, there are outer defences comprising a suite of relatively slight earthworks (double ditches with medial bank) on the more vulnerable north side and a single bank and ditch on the south. Once the northern outworks have been crossed, the massive keep-gatehouse of the castle cuts across the neck of the promontory and lying behind it there is a courtyard protected by a curtain wall which still stands to its full height of 12m.

Built shortly before 1400 for the Regent Albany (Governor of Scotland in the minority of James I), the design of the castle is unusual, combining simplicity with considerable defensive strength. It did not follow the contemporary fashion by relying on a defensive wall-head and projecting towers, but gained its strength from a high, simple curtain wall and an ingeniously planned keep-gatehouse. The latter was designed as two adjoining tower-houses, one for the lord's hall (on the east) and the other for the common hall; the two were not linked internally and both could have acted as separate redouts. The main entrance to the castle was through a simple passage under, but with no direct access to, the lord's hall. Thus the defences combined the advantages of the curtain-wall castle with those of the tower-house or keep.

Besides the keep-gatehouse the courtyard contains a substantial kitchen block on the west and a range of lesser buildings on the east. The rear (south) wall of the castle is pierced by windows but there is no evidence to suggest that a range of buildings has been demolished along this wall, and it is more likely that they were never constructed.

The castle remained in use into the 18th century and during the '45, when it was falling into disrepair, it served as a prison. By the end of that century, however, it was roofless, but was restored between 1883 and 1886.

Information from ‘Exploring Scotland’s Heritage: The Clyde Estuary and Central Region’, (1985).

Watching Brief (7 January 1998)

Kirkdale was required to monitoring the clearance of loose material in each of the window embrasures and mural chambers off the second floor hall.

The debris in question proved to be general detritus, dust and rubbish which had avccumulated since the abandonment of the castle, but pre-dated the extensive, late 19th-century restoration works enacted on the lower floors and adjacent structures. Within the window embrasure located in the N wall, there was evidence of a re-surfacing or patching which utilised broken floor tile and compacted, clay-rich silt. These rather crude repairs pre-dated the restoration works and possibly reflect late medieval occupation. Tile fragments were found in several of the embrasures and rooms examined, most particularly in the small chamber in the S wall. Once cleared, all the surfaces revealed were photographed.

Sponsor: Historic Scotland

G Ewart & D Stewart 1998

Kirkdale Archaeology

Watching Brief (20 January 1998 - 16 February 1998)

A watching brief was carried out over two days to examine and record a number of slit trenches cut into the soil and gravel embankment W of the Kitchen Tower at Doune Castle.

The purpose of the trenches was to provide settings for railway sleepers and concrete settings which would provide a solid foundation for a mass of scaffolding to be erected against the external wall face of the Kitchen Tower. The tower is set on the edge of a steep slope above the river. The embankment comprises mortar-rich gravel covered by a damp earth deposit.

With the exception of Trench 4, where the founds of the Kitchen Tower were exposed, the remaining trenches revealed the make-up of the embankment, and traces of the natural slope which had been enhanced to form it.

Sponsor: Historic Scotland

Kirkdale Archaeology 1998

Watching Brief (10 March 1999 - 11 March 1999)

A watching brief was carried out over a period of two days in March 1999, while Historic Scotland staff excavated a shallow trench against the N side of the inner courtyard in order to construct a footpath of grass bars. On removing the turf and topsoil it became clear that a cobbled surface survived beneath the current turf in this part of the courtyard.

Sponsor: Historic Scotland

D Stewart 1999

Kirkdale Archaeology

Watching Brief (24 May 1999 - 19 August 1999)

Watching briefs were maintained at two sites in the vicinity of Doune Castle during the Forth Valley Sewer Renewal Project, undertaken by East of Scotland Water. The areas affected were the driveway leading southwards to the Castle itself, and an area to the W of Doune Fire Station, in the vicinity of the Flavian fort discovered in 1984 by aerial reconnaissance.

Four trenches, each measuring c.2 x 2m, were opened along the driveway, to remove the existing sewer and to install a new pipeline. The trenches revealed recently disturbed horizons associated with the fitting of the earlier sewer, although the southernmost trench, nearest the castle, revealed possible evidence for a denuded earthen bank or platform.

A single trench of c.150m length and up to 2m wide was excavated to the W of the Fire Station, along the top of a steep slope down to a small tributary of the River Teith. Nothing of archaeological significance was revealed, and the site of the Roman fort was not affected. The slope was demonstrated to be a natural profile, with some recent landscaping associated with the construction of the modern housing scheme to the E.

Sponsor: Historic Scotland

G Ewart and A Dunn 1999

Kirkdale Archaeology

Watching Brief (1 November 1999 - 4 November 1999)

A watching brief was carried out at Doune Castle near Stirling while Historic Scotland personnel excavated a shallow trench in the N part of the courtyard, in order to create a track for a paved footpath. The new footpath was projected to run along the inside face of the N wall for a distance of 20m, starting at the W side of the entrance gate and terminating against the W wall below the NW external staircase. The width of the excavated area was 1.70m for the E part and 1.80m for the W part, taking into account variations in the width of the NW and NE external stairs. The excavation lay entirely in the turf and topsoil presently forming the courtyard surface. An area of paving between the external stairs was also scheduled for removal, but not at this time. Following this excavation sand and concrete slabs were to be laid over the area.

It should be noted that part of the path track was excavated in March of this year. A total of 6.50m of trench was cut W from the courtyard entrance in order to fit grass bars. It was only at this time that it was realised that an earlier cobbled surface existed just below the topsoil at depths ranging from 50-200mm. The irregular surface of the cobbled area made grass bars impractical and the project was halted at that point, and the trench left open until a new plan for the area could be devised. The present project will place paving slabs over the cobbles without disturbing the original courtyard surface.

An area measuring 32 square metres has now been opened up along the N side of the courtyard. In the vast majority of this area the cobbling of the castle courtyard is quite intact. Dislocation of the surface seems only to come from recent activity. If a requirement occurs at any time for a exposed cobbled surface then it is likely that in excess of 90% of the cobbling could be found in situ.

Sponsor: Historic Scotland

G Ewart 1999

Kirkdale Archaeology

Watching Brief (26 February 2001 - 27 February 2001)

A watching brief was undertaken in February 2001 at Doune Castle (NN 7285 0107 ) while a trench was cut for a freshwater pipe to serve the new toilet opposite the castle car park. The work took place on the edge of the steep high slope, potentially the site of a defensive structure.

No man-made structural elements could be seen associated with any part of the trenching. There were no finds.

Sponsor: Historic Scotland

D Stewart and G Ewart 2001

Kirkdale Archaeology

Watching Brief (16 May 2006)

NN 7280 0115 A watching brief was undertaken on 16 May 2006 during the excavation of eight holes for signposts around Doune Castle. The holes were excavated to a maximum width of 0.4 x 1m deep. No archaeological deposits were encountered and no artefacts recovered.

Archive to be deposited in NMRS.

Sponsor: Stirling Council.

L Main 2006

Watching Brief (2 May 2007)

May 2007 - An archaeological watching brief was maintained near Doune Castle. There were no finds or features of archaeological significance, and it was thought that only natural deposits had been encountered.

Information from David Murray (Kirkdale Archaeology) May 2007. OASIS ID - kirkdale1-249652

Watching Brief (23 September 2009)

NN 7284 0112 A watching brief was maintained on 23 September 2009 during the excavation of a small area

immediately SE of the car park to the N of Doune Castle. The excavation reached a depth of 0.4m and the modern finds seen in the trench suggested that the ground had been recently disturbed, probably during the installation of the two concrete fence post bases that were seen during the excavation. No archaeological features or finds were recorded.

Archive: RCAHMS (intended)

Funder: Historic Scotland

Paul Fox – Kirkdale Archaeology

Standing Building Recording (23 March 2010 - 29 March 2010)

Addyman Archaeology and Richard Oram undertook a historical analytical assessment at Doune Castle to understand and define the extent of early masonry remains incorporated within the existing superstructure of Doune Castle. The Castle is primarily the outcome of a major rebuilding from the latter part of the 14th century, for Robert Stewart Duke ofAlbany. Through review of early documentary sources the project also sought to examine the wider historical context that might explain the presence of an earlier castle at the site, and its ownership. Though the existence of some of the earlier remains was self-evident, much of this evidence is very subtle in nature, requiring repeated inspections of each area in different lighting conditions. It was also necessary to attempt to define as far as possible how extensive previous restoration works had been in these areas - the castle has seen much historic localised patching and modification and later conservation works. The latter extend from the time of Andrew Kerr's restoration for the 14th Earl of Moray in the 1880s through to the more recent long-term programme of works since acquisition of the site by the State in 1984, and still on-going under Historic Scotland's auspices. The report includes a historiography of the castle that outlines the evolving architectural interpretation of the castle. Following the analysis, it has been possible to considerably refine the initial interpretation and, indeed, to develop it further in a number of key respects.

Information from Addyman Archaeology (R Oram) 2010

OASIS ID: addymana1-116078

Archaeological Evaluation (24 February 2011 - 8 March 2011)

Following the assessment of the physical and historical analysis of Doune Castle, Addyman Archaeology proposed that a 13th century castle predated the current 14th century edifice on site. In order to confirm the physical existence of an earlier castle and how its layout influenced the later structure, a geophysical survey was undertaken followed by targeted evaluation trenches. Direct structural below-ground evidence of 13th century date remained more subtle than anticipated within the limited trenches, but proved sufficiently tantalising to warrant further investigation of larger areas. An early working surface and evidence for a robbed-out wall were encountered underlying the present foundations to the west of the gatehouse, presumably of 14th century date. This underlay foundations that proved to be in an off-set alignment with the upstanding wall, thus seemingly also of pre-14th century date; suggesting that the robbed-out wall below might be even earlier. A similar off-set alignment has been noted for the foundations underlying the late 14th century curtain wall to the east. The lowest level of clean fine-grained and compacted sands may either be undisturbed natural subsoil reflecting the original topography of the site, or imported material to form a motte mound or other earthwork fortification of a much earlier defended site. The tentative 13th century pottery recovered from Trench 1, although not in situ, together with contemporary finds from metal detecting in the vicinity make a strong case for a 13th century occupation of the castle.

Information from Addyman Archaeology (T Addyman) 2011

OASIS ID: addymana1-115517

Watching Brief (15 May 2012)

Alder Archaeology undertook a watching brief on the site of excavations required for an underground low voltage cable and associated wooden pole and stay. The site was considered to have archaeological potential due to its close proximity to the 14th century Doune Castle and the nearby Roman Fort. Spoil from the excavation was scanned with a metal detector. Of interest was a fragment of a medieval spur and some fragments of leather found below topsoil in the excavation for the stay pit. Apart from the spur nothing of archaeological significance was found during the watching brief.

Alder Archaeology Ltd, 2012

Standing Building Recording (28 March 2016)

NN 7285 0107 A standing building survey was carried out, 28 March 2016, in the central ground floor cellar of the hall range, ahead of its conversion into a shop. The disposition of the cellar and its features indicated distinct phasing. The N wall appears to have been extant, probably part of a curtain wall, prior to the layout of the hall range when the imposition of the three cellars left a risband joint between them and the earlier wall. The E and W cellar walls with their recesses, the doorway, lobby and window bay in the S wall and the vault appear to be of a common building phase.

Archive: NRHE (intended)

Funder: Historic Environment Scotland

Paul Fox – Kirkdale Archaeology

(Source: DES, Volume 17)

OASIS ID: kirkdale1-280271

Watching Brief (29 November 2017 - 30 November 2017)

NN 7285 0114 A watching brief was carried out, November

2017, just outside the scheduled monument of Doune

Castle, as part of the Minor Archaeological Services Call-Off

Contract, during road widening to the car park. A single cut

feature, a shallow ditch filled with ash/clinker, was recorded.

It is suggested that this feature is the remains of an ash path

previously serving the cottage to the north.

Archive: NRHE (intended). Report: Stirling Council

Funder: Historic Environment Scotland

Melanie Johnson – CFA Archaeology Ltd

(Source: DES, Volume 19)

OASIS ID: cfaarcha1-303914

Geophysical Survey (8 January 2018 - 12 January 2018)

NN 72849 01071 A programme of geophysical survey was

undertaken, 8–12 January 2018, within and immediately

surrounding Doune Castle, covering 0.9ha. A combination

of gradiometer, resistance and ground penetrating radar

(GPR) surveys were undertaken. These identified a wealth

of anomalies of possible archaeological interest, although

natural responses are confusing the data to some extent.

The gradiometer data has been adversely affected by

broad zones of magnetic disturbance generated by ferrous

material within and surrounding the area. Although a

coherent cluster of responses was detected to the N of the

castle, possibly indicative of an area of archaeologically

significant potential burning/activity, interpretation is

cautious given the wider context.

Resistance and GPR survey within the castle’s courtyard

identified a few anomalies of possible archaeological interest,

but the results were dominated by natural responses. The

resistance and GPR survey to the N of the castle identified

at least one possible structure, although natural trends in

the data may be causing some aliasing of the results. Both

datasets appear to have detected an eastward extension

of the extant ditch. Both data sets also suggest a possible

feature to the N of and parallel to the existing ditch. However,

the gradiometer data does not suggest a second ditch exists.

It is possible that the resistance and GPR data are perhaps

detecting the remains of an outer wall and/or bank.

Archive: Rose Geophysical Consultants

Funder: CFA Archaeology on behalf of HES

Susan Ovenden – Rose Geophysical Consultants

(Source: DES Volume 19)

Field Walking (January 2018)

NN 72854 01025 A walkover historic woodland assessment of

the PIC area around Doune Castle, and the wider landscape

including the Wood of Doune to the W, was undertaken in

January 2018, complemented by historic map research. The

study area is all within the historic ownership of the lands of

Doune by the Earls of Moray.

In the PIC area, there are diverse and attractive wooded

features, ranging from semi-natural riverbank alders, oaks

and ashes, through planted amenity or garden areas to

plantations with a probable economic driver, at least when

they were created. The trees in the PIC area are probably

largely of 18th- or 19th-century date, in the period when

the castle was no longer occupied. The planted features

demonstrate that care continued to be given to creating and

maintaining an impressive setting for the castle.

The Moray Estate land fans out to the W from the castle,

and encompasses a fascinating landscape which has evolved

from medieval hunting park to today’s mix of forestry,

agriculture and housing. The Wood of Doune is known to

have existed in the late medieval period, with a late 16thcentury

record of James VI’s instruction for the park dyke

to be repaired to protect the young growth. Despite being

a wood then, and on Roy’s map and the 1st Edition OS

map, the Wood of Doune is in tree-cover terms now almost

wholly a modern plantation. From our observations, only

the deep gully of the Buchany Burn has a rich semi-natural

tree cover, possibly developed since the late 18th-century

re-routing of the Carse of Cambus drainage through it,

and there are no really old trees in the Wood of Doune.

Any field evidence for its longer history is more likely to

come from archaeological remains than from the woodland

cover. The survival of what is thought to be part of the park

pale at the SE edge, and furthermore of a bank well within

the interior of the Wood of Doune, suggest that ground

disturbance has not been all that great and that a LiDAR

survey of the wood’s footprint could gauge what cultural

heritage features survive. Otherwise, historic timbers may

be the only remnant of the medieval Wood of Doune, with

the oak draw bar within Doune Castle’s gatehouse being a

likely candidate.

The likely oldest living trees we encountered were not

in the Wood of Doune but much further W, on the minor

Drumloist Road near the Annet Burn and Doune Lodge.

These remarkable trees, and the old dyke on which they grow,

alerted us to an exciting possibility, that some potentially

early boundary features may survive beyond the Wood of

Doune, and that it may be possible to trace the outline of an

earlier, wider park.

Archive: NRHE (intended). Report: Stirling Council

Funder: Historic Environment Scotland

Coralie Mills and Peter Quelch – Dendrochronicle for CFA

Archaeology Ltd

(Source: DES, Volume 19)

Watching Brief (March 2018)

NN 73034 01207 to NN 72841 01102 A watching brief was

carried out, March 2018, during the installation of a new

power cable for stair lighting. Two trenches were excavated;

one to the N of the Ardoch Burn and one to the S, with the

SW part of the trenches being within the scheduled area,

where it followed an existing cable.

Stone walls were recorded to the NE and W ends of the

cable trench, both were in the location of field walls or

boundaries seen on the OS 25" map of 1864. No finds or

features relating to the castle were uncovered.

Archive: HRHE. Report: Stirling Council

Funder: Historic Environment Scotland

John Musgrove – CFA Archaeology Ltd

(Source DES Volume 19)

OASIS ID: cfaarcha1-313611

References

MyCanmore Image Contributions


Contribute an Image

MyCanmore Text Contributions