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Hawick, Commercial Road, Dangerfield Mills

Tweed Mill (19th Century), Woollen Mill (19th Century)

Site Name Hawick, Commercial Road, Dangerfield Mills

Classification Tweed Mill (19th Century), Woollen Mill (19th Century)

Alternative Name(s) Dangerfields Mill; Messrs William Watson And Sons

Canmore ID 55282

Site Number NT51NW 38

NGR NT 50198 15006

Datum OSGB36 - NGR

Permalink http://canmore.org.uk/site/55282

Ordnance Survey licence number 100057073. All rights reserved.
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Administrative Areas

  • Council Scottish Borders, The
  • Parish Hawick
  • Former Region Borders
  • Former District Roxburgh
  • Former County Roxburghshire

Activities

Reference (1976)

(Location cited as NT 501 150). Dangerfield Mill, part probably early 19th century. There are two main ranges in this mill, one two-storey with a central gablet, and the other three-storey and attic, 5-bay, both rubble-built.

J R Hume 1976.

Reference (1994)

Within Dangerfield Mill can be found original machinery, notably lineshaft driving systems, Platt spinning mules of 1872. The mill also contains what may be the oldest substantial group of spinning machines in working order in a Borders mill.

C A Strang 1994.

Note (26 November 2003)

After a period during which both the buildings and the machinery were retained as part of a preservation project, the spinning mill and carding shed were destroyed by separate fires in 2003.

Weaving shed and spinning mill burned down and destroyed in two separate arson attacks in June/July 2003. Some remnants of the machinery may be salvaged and displayed at Tower Mill in Hawick.

Information from RCAHMS (MKO), 26 November 2003.

Standing Building Recording (November 2009)

Headland Archaeology Ltd was commissioned to undertake recording of historic buildings on a proposed development site at Commercial Road, Hawick, Roxburghshire. Headland had already produced an archaeological desk based assessment for this site in October 2008, which identified the remains of two late 18th or early 19th century textile mill complexes, Dangerfield Mill and Langlands Mill, within the proposed development area.

Given the prior demolition of the majority of both mill complexes and the significant alterations to both standing buildings on the site their value as historic structures had been compromised. This report forms a record of the structures prior to demolition and redevelopment in line with the requirements of the planning authority [Planning Ref. 09/00622/FUL].

Standing Building Recording (14 October 2009 - 15 October 2009)

NT 5020 1500 A desk-based assessment in October 2008 identified the remains of two late 18th- or early 19th-century textile mill complexes, Dangerfield and Langland Mills, in a proposed development area. Historic building recording of the standing buildings associated with Dangerfield Mill (the wool sorting shed) and the remains of Langlands Mill was undertaken on 14–15 October 2009. The work allowed the documentation of the changes that have taken place on the site since the construction of the mills in the 19th century.

The surviving wool sorting shed and ruined weaving and carding sheds associated with the Dangerfield Mill probably represent buildings constructed during the expansion of the mill in the late 19th century. The wall remains of the Langlands Mill suggest different phases of construction. Some possible rubble-built portions of the wall may date to the early 19th century, when the site was occupied by the Rough Heugh Mill, later incorporated into the Langlands Mill. Most of the two mill complexes have already been demolished, and both standing buildings have been significantly altered. Their value as historic structures has therefore been compromised. This report forms a record of the structures before their demolition and redevelopment.

Allison Borden – Headland Archaeology Ltd

Archaeological Evaluation (May 2010)

Headland Archaeology conducted an evaluation at the site of the former Dangerfields and Langfields Mills, Commercial Road, Hawick in order to satisfy a planning condition placed by Scottish Borders

Council. The work was commissioned by Halcrow Yolles on behalf of Sainsburys and followed previous phases of desk based assessment and historic building recording. Nine trenches were excavated in total and revealed wall foundations and a well-preserved, regionally significant, sub-surface lade system.

The results of the archaeological works on the site of the former Langlands and Dangerfield Mills revealed several wall foundations of different construction phases and a well-preserved, regionally significant, sub-surface lade system associated with the19th century mills formerly stood on the development site. No ground surfaces associated with those early mills were revealed. These are likely to have been removed and replaced at the same level by later 20th century development. This is corroborated by the deep levels of demolition made ground revealed in the southern and eastern extents of the site (Trenches 4, 5 and 6). Moreover, all the walls that may have been associated with the weaving sheds of Dangerfield Mills, as shown on the 1898 OS map (Trenches 1, 2 and 3) survived as basal foundations directly overlying the clay subsoil. Slightly more substantial were the walls in Trench 9 which align well with the southeastern buildings belonging to Langland Mill, as shown on the

1898 OS map. Again, no original floor surfaces survived in Trench 9. The only exception to this was sandstone floor [019] associated with external, west facing mill lade wall [018]. This may indicate the

level of an old ground surface, located approximately 0.6m below current ground surface, although the floor was very limited in extent and badly preserved.

Nevertheless, the walls of the 19th century mill lade system, including a possible wheel pit are of particular interest. These appeared to have been well preserved, substantial walls built of dressed sandstone blocks. Some phasing evidence was also evident but further work would be required in order to map the full extent and history of the lade system, including the wheel pit and functional characteristics of the water power system. However, no further work is presently required in association with the current development, as the mill lade walls will not be impacted upon by the ground works.

Therefore, these will be preserved in situ.

Source: Headland Archaeology (SS)

Funder: Halcrow Yolles

Watching Brief (23 September 2010)

NT 5020 1500

A watching brief was undertaken on 23 September 2010 during ground-breaking works associated with the insertion of fuel storage tanks at the site of the former Dangerfields and Langlands Mills. A single trench, 12m x 6m, was excavated to a maximum depth of 4m and revealed a number of small stone foundations below a large amount of demolition material and a single rubble stone wall. All of the features recorded are thought to relate to the 19th- and 20th-century mills that were previously located on the site.

Archive: RCAHMS

Funder: Halcrow Yolles

D Wilson 2010

Sbc Note (15 April 2016)

Visibility: Standing structure or monument.

Information from Scottish Borders Council

Desk Based Assessment

Headland Archaeology Ltd was commissioned to undertake an archaeological desk based assessment and site appraisal of a proposed development site at Commercial Road, Hawick. The site lies outside the area known to have been occupied by the medieval burgh of Hawick, which was on the opposite bank of the River Teviot. However early maps (Ponts map of 1583-1601) indicate some sett lement in the vicinity of the proposed development. Roy`s map of 1747-55 depicts a feature likely to be a mill lade running through the proposed development site.

In the late 18th or early 19th century two spinning mills were constructed entirely within the proposed development area. One was named Dangerfield Mill and was founded in 1804 the other was known as Langlands Mill. Rough Heugh Mill lay partly within the southern part of the proposed development site and was recorded on John Wood`s Town Plan of 1824, before being incorporated into Ladylaw Mill by 1860.

During the late 19th Century, Langlands Mill increased in size and Dangerfield Mill expanded significantly to form a complex of several buildings. Some of the Dangerfield Mill structures were demolished when Henderson Technical College (now Border`s College) was erected in the 1970`s. Langlands Mill was demolished in the 1990`s; as was a further building associated with Dangerfield Mill. The remaining Dangerfield Mill structures stood until 2003, when arson resulted in further partial demolition. Ladylaw Mills was demolished in the 1950`s following an arson attack.

A two storey, sandstone structure with central gablet associated with Dangerfield Mills still survives undamaged while adjacent single storey workrooms remain in a state of collapse. A vaulted basement-level structure beneath the workrooms was also identified. Ruinous remains of Langlands Mill are also upstanding It is likely that the Council Archaeologist will advise the planning authority that some historic building recording of these structures is an appropriate

condition of any planning permission.

The site has a high potential for sub-surface archaeological remains related to early textile mills to survive, although these are likely to have been extensively disturbed by development in the later 19th and 20th centuries. In particular deeply cut features such as the mill lade or wheel pits may survive. There is a low potential for earlier remains as 16th century plans show some development in the vicinity. It is likely that the Council Archaeologist will advise the planning authority that an archaeological programme of works to deal with any sub-surface remains is an appropriate condition of any planning permission.

Source: Headland Archaeology (AR)

Funder: Halcrow Yolles

Watching Brief

Headland Archaeology were required to undertake a watching brief on ground breaking works associated with the insertion of fuel storage tanks at the site of the former Dangerfields and Langlands Mills, Commercial Road, Hawick. The work was commissioned by Halcrow Yolles on behalf of Sainsburys and followed previous phases of desk based assessment, historic building recording and trial trenching. A single large trench was excavated and revealed a number of stone foundations below a large amount of demolition material and a single rubble stone wall. At no point did the excavations reveal any of the extant mill lade that had been revealed during the previous evaluation phase.

Source: Headland Archaeology

Funder: DW

References

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