Edinburgh, Leith, Kirkgate, South Leith Parish Church
Chapel (Period Unassigned), Church (15th Century), Inhumation(S) (Period Unassigned), War Memorial (20th Century)
Site Name Edinburgh, Leith, Kirkgate, South Leith Parish Church
Alternative Name(s) St Mary's Church; War Memorial; 2nd Regt Maritime Royal Artilley War Memorial; South Leith Parishioners War Memorial
Canmore ID 51946
Site Number NT27NE 30
NGR NT 27041 76070
Datum OSGB36 - NGR
- Council Edinburgh, City Of
- Parish Edinburgh (Edinburgh, City Of)
- Former Region Lothian
- Former District City Of Edinburgh
- Former County Midlothian
NT27NE 30.00 27041 76070
(NT 2704 7606) Church (NAT) formerly St Mary's Chapel (NR) 13th century OS 6"map, Edinburghshire, 1st ed., (1853)
South Leith parish church was originally a chapel, dedicated to St Mary, attached to the collegiate church of Restalrig (NT27SE 103). Origally cruciform, it had been reduced to its nave by 1559. It was made into a parish church in 1609. Between 1650 and 1657, it was used as a magazine by Cromwellian troops, subsequently being restored to ecclesiastical use. The fabric was entirely renewed in 1848,but the west piers of the original crossing are still to be seen in the vestibules at the east end of the building.
It was not possible to confirm the presence of the original piers at the time of field investigation.
Visited by OS (B S) 27 November 1975.
NT27NE 30.00 27041 76070
NT27NE 30.01 27044 76040 Churchyard
Robert Mylne 1674 - new steeple taken down 1936
Thomas Hamilton - reported on state of building in 1836 - repaired & restored 1848.
SCOTTISH RECORD OFFICE:
Copy (1822) of agreement between John Brown, Boxmaster of the Maltmen of Leith, and John Stewart, Boxmaster of the Sledders for giving possession to the Sledders of the 5 laigh seats built by the maltmen under their lofts in the Lady Kirk of Leith, with licence to bury their dead within the maltmen's aisle ...
1661 (Ratified 21 September 1699)
Wright's account for work on houses and The Kirk.
Wright's account for work in Leith Churh and house at Yardheads
Account for painting the Carters' seats in South Leith Church.
Account or alterations to seats in South Leith Church.
Account for a pair of Kirk seat candlesticks
[Printed] Letter James Reoch, Convener Committee of the Kirk Session. He includes William Burn, Architect's report on the state of the Tower of the Church and asks proprietors to consider this report before attending a meeting.
19 September 1836
Report by William Burn, Architect [1789-1870] on the state of the Tower or Spire of South Leith Parish Church.
'The Tower on the West end is of much more recent construction and to the careless and injudicious execution ... the whole defects, not only of the Tower itself but of the main roof of the Church and East Gable, are entirely attributable ... The West end of the Church appears to be part of the original building and on this wall the West Front of the Tower has been errected; but as the other 3 sides had no similar substructure to depend upon a new foundation became necessary, while having yielded to the weight placed upon it while the West wall rested on the old structure, the Tower has evidently sunk on the East and by pressing against the timbers of the roof has also given them an inclination to the Eastward and displaced the upper part of the East Gable ...'
William Burn considers that the Tower should be taken down as far as the roof of the Church and the East Gable rebuilt to correspond to the West end.
Letter: James Reoch to the Deacon of the Carters, Leith.
Payment for the work on the steeple is now due.
The Deacon's proportion is ?4.4.4.
10 July 1837
Publication Account (1981)
The church of St.Mary in South Leith was built about 1438. It was formed as subordinate chapel to Restalrig which continued to be the church of the parish until 1609 (Swan, 1925, 201). Little of the original fabric survives except for the west window which is now in the church of St.Conan at Loch Awe. The church was apparently used to lodge Scots prisoners during Hertford's campaign of 1547-8 (Robertson, 1851, 26) and the choir appears to have been destroyed during the siege of 1559-60 (Grant, 1882, iii, 218).
Despite the damage sustained, St.Mary's continued as a place of worship for South Leith residents. In 1572 the General Assembly met within its walls (Hutcheson, 1856, 118). Additions to the fabric included a range of dormer windows in 1614 and another seventeenth century appendage, a stone tower surmounted in the 'Scoto-Dutch taste by a conical spire of wood and metal' (Grant, 1882, iii, 219). In 1848 the church underwent drastic restoration which included the construction of a new tower, the removal of the remaining dormer windows and the demolition of the east and west gables of the church (Hutcheson, 1856, 199).
Information from ‘Historic Edinburgh, Canongate and Leith: The Archaeological Implications of Development’ (1981).
Trial Trench (22 September 2008 - 2 October 2008)
An archaeological evaluation was undertaken on Constitution Street, Leith during September and October 2008. The aim was to establish the former extent of the South Leith Parish Church graveyard which had been cut through in the 18th century with the construction of Constitution Street and its housing.
The deposits beneath the road are likely to be made ground. The sandy deposit, into which the service trenches were cut was probably used to create a level surface for the road. The presence of disarticulated
human bone in this made ground suggests that at least some of it originated from the original graveyard and at may have been deposited when the tenements, which have basements, were constructed on the eastern side of Constitution Street. The graves were more numerous on the western side where they had been less disturbed. They were cut into a graveyard soil that was present at a depth of c 0.8m. This was found on the western side of both trenches and in the centre of Trench 2 where burials were also encountered. The graveyard soil in the centre of Trench 2 had been truncated leaving only a small area undisturbed. It occurred at a similar depth as that found to the west but the burials in this area occurred 0.3m into the graveyard soil, at a depth of 1.1m below the present road surface, suggesting that the profile in this area was more complete.
Information from Ross Murray (Headland Archaeology) December 2008. OASIS ID: headland1-51073
Excavation (15 April 2009 - 22 September 2009)
NT 27041 76070 Part of the post-medieval graveyard associated with South Leith Parish Church was excavated
15 April–22 September 2009 in advance of tram track construction in Constitution Street. The street runs adjacent to the graveyard wall and was built in 1790 to improve access to the harbour.
The excavations yielded 260 graves containing some 302 inhumations in a variety of grave types. Despite the proximity to a known graveyard, the density and preservation of the graves was unexpected, as burials
had not been thought to extend much beyond the existing graveyard wall. No finds of human remains had been
reported previously, despite evidence that many burials had been cut by modern services.
The graves, orientated NW–SE, were arranged in closely spaced rows. The majority were single, supine extended inhumations interred in wooden coffins or in earthen graves. Also present were shrouded bodies placed in simple graves, group burials in irregular pits and superimposed double burials, usually of a child and an adult. Most artefacts were iron coffin nails, with a few shroud pins. A copper buckle was found in one grave, along with textile remains of clothing.
Documentary and pottery evidence point to a date between the 16th and 17th centuries for most graves, and all predate the construction of Constitution Street in c1790. However, there is a strong possibility that earlier
medieval burials are present, possibly associated with the 15th-century hospital and chapel that stood on and close to the present church. Radiocarbon dating and further stratigraphic analysis may give us a more accurate picture of their chronology.
Archive: RCAHMS (intended). Reports: CECAS and RCAHMS
Sorina Spanou – Headland Archaeology Ltd
Project (February 2014 - July 2014)
A data upgrade project to record war memorials.