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Abercorn Church And Anglian Monastery

Church, Monastery, War Memorial(s) (20th Century)

Site Name Abercorn Church And Anglian Monastery

Classification Church, Monastery, War Memorial(s) (20th Century)

Alternative Name(s) Aebbercurnig; Abercorn Monastery; Abercorn Kirk; Abercorn Parish Church; War Memorial Plaque And Window

Canmore ID 49123

Site Number NT07NE 1

NGR NT 08141 79097

Datum OSGB36 - NGR

Permalink http://canmore.org.uk/site/49123

Ordnance Survey licence number 100057073. All rights reserved.
© Copyright and database right 2016.

Digital Images

Administrative Areas

  • Council West Lothian
  • Parish Abercorn (west Lothian)
  • Former Region Lothian
  • Former District West Lothian
  • Former County West Lothian

Recording Your Heritage Online

Abercorn Kirk, from 11th century

As Norman parish kirks go in Scotland, Abercorn must have been a fairly substantial example - wide nave and choir, the latter tenanted by the splendid Hopetoun Loft. Most of what you see is by Peter MacGregor Chalmers, 1893. Two stained-glass windows by Douglas Strachan, 1921. Fine 12th-century south door, chevron stonework in tympanum, and west door, 1893, in ferociously crisp Norman with grimacing gargoyles. Aisles sprout from the torso so much as to conceal it: the Binns aisle, 1618; the Philpstoun burial enclosure, 1723; the Duddingston aisle, 1603; and the Hopetoun aisle, 1707. The Hopetoun Loft occupies the chancel and faces down the kirk displaying the magnificence of its panelling and fretwork screen by Alexander Eizatt, and the armorial achievement painted by Richard Waitt. The adjacent aisle is a two-storey, harled piece of swagger by Sir William Bruce, complete with pyramid roof, ashlar-panelled windows, and a wonderfully panelled retiring room above burial enclosure below. Atmospheric arboreal kirkyard. Outstanding collection of early carved stones in gatehouse.

Taken from "West Lothian: An Illustrated Architectural Guide", by Stuart Eydmann, Richard Jaques and Charles McKean, 2008. Published by the Rutland Press http://www.rias.org.uk

EARLY MEDIEVAL CARVED STONES PROJECT (13 April 2016)

Abercorn 1, West Lothian, cross-shaft fragment

Measurements: H 1.40m, W face A 0.46m to 0.37m; face C 0.41m to 0.36m; D face B 0.23m to 0.22m; face D 0.26m to 0.22m

Stone type: sandstone

Place of discovery: NT 0814 7907

Present location: in the museum at Abercorn Church.

Evidence for discovery: found re-used as a window lintel inside the church during repairs.

Present condition: set in cement on modern plinth, worn but carving still detailed. Left margin of face C has been chiselled off.

Description

This is the upper part of a cross-shaft carved in relief on all four faces, with a roll moulding at the edges and an inner roll moulding on each face. At the top is the start of the missing cross-head. Face A is divided into two complete and two incomplete panels of ornament by roll mouldings. The lowest panel contains an incomplete double spiral ring-knot, above which is a panel of two-strand interlace, the pattern turned with a central break. Above again is a panel of diagonal key pattern, and at the top is the basal part of a panel, the carving of which is too damaged to make out, but which appears to be figural rather than interlace. Face B has a single panel of complex interlaced medallion scroll with single-ridged nodes, in which each medallion contains a slightly different design of twisted sprays of trilobed berry bunches and veined pointed leaves. There are also leaves, single berries and pointed berry bunches in the spaces between the medallions. There is a wider panel of interlaced medallion scroll on face C, although the sinister margin has been damaged by later trimming. Here the medallions contain fleshy pointed leaves, single berries and trilobed berry bunches, and there are leaves and berries in the spaces outside the medallions. At the top there is the base of a panel of interlace pattern. On face D there is a single panel of scroll foliage with triple-ridged nodes, trilobed berry bunches and veined triangular leaves. Between each scroll is an elongated veined leaf or frond. At the top is the basal part of a panel of diagonal key pattern.

Date: eighth century.

References: ECMS pt 3, 418-19; RCAHMS 1929, no 274, cross no 1.

RCAHMS Archive: Canmore ID 49123 and 251978; site number NT07NE 1

Abercorn 2, West Lothian, hogback grave cover

Measurements: H 0.40m to 0.60m, L 1.59m, W at ends 0.40m and 0.34m

Stone type: sandstone

Place of discovery: NT 0814 7907

Present location: in museum at Abercorn Church.

Evidence for discovery: found ‘a little to the south west’ of the church, its axis lying east/west (Russell Walker 1885, 406)

Present condition: the ridge is worn but the tegulation is clear, and the ends are truncated.

Description

Below a worn ridge band, there are on each steeply curved side seven rows of semi-circular tegulae, with a plain band at either end.

Date: eleventh century.

References: Russell Walker 1885, 406-8; ECMS pt 3, 419-20; Lang 1974, 222 (Abercorn 1).

RCAHMS Archive: Canmore ID 49123 and 251978; site number NT07NE 1

Abercorn 3, West Lothian, cross-shaft fragment

Measurements: H 1.12m, W 0.29m, D 0.15m Inv / H 0.97m, W 0.28m, D 0.10m (ECMS)

Stone type: sandstone

Place of discovery: NT 0814 7907

Present location: Carlowrie Castle, West Lothian

Evidence for discovery: found in 1863 re-used as a window lintel in one of the outbuildings at Abercorn Manse during building works, and taken to Carlowrie Castle where it was set on a modern base against the garden wall.

Present condition: very worn and damaged.

Description

This fragment is part of a relief-carved cross-shaft, which has been split lengthways and trimmed along top, foot and one narrow face. The one intact edge has a plain roll moulding with another roll moulding on each side framing the ornament. Face A is carved with two scrolls, above which there appears to be a serpent entwined in foliage. There appear also to be foliage scrolls on face B in a repeating pattern which includes large frond-like leaves.

Date: eighth or ninth century.

References: ECMS pt 3, 420; RCAHMS 1929, no 351.

RCAHMS Archive: Canmore ID 49123 and 251978; site number NT07NE 1

Abercorn 4, West Lothian, cross-shaft fragment

Measurements: H 0.51m, W 0.28m, D 0.16m

Stone type: sandstone

Place of discovery: NT 0814 7907

Present location: in museum at Abercorn Church.

Evidence for discovery: found in the churchyard sometime prior to 1903.

Present condition: worn.

Description

This is the lower part of a cross-shaft carved in relief on the two broad faces above a plain base. There are roll mouldings on the edges, with an inner roll moulding on the ornamented faces. Face A is carved with the lower part of a large panel of diagonal key pattern (ECMS type 95). Face B has a lower complete panel containing ten-cord plaitwork with breaks, while the surviving strip of the panel above has square key pattern. Faces B and D are carved with double-outlined plain panels.

Date: eighth century.

References: ECMS pt 3, 420; RCAHMS 1929, no 274, cross no 5.

RCAHMS Archive: Canmore ID 49123 and 251978; site number NT07NE 1

Abercorn 5, West Lothian, hogback grave cover

Measurements: H c 0.30m, L c 1.40m, W 0.37m to 0.40m

Stone type: sandstone

Place of discovery: NT 0814 7907

Present location: in museum at Abercorn Church.

Evidence for discovery: found on the south side of the church during the alterations to the church c 1893.

Present condition: broken into two with truncated ends, but the tegulation is crisp.

Description

The ridge is slightly curved and plain and the sides have a shallow slope. The ends are truncated but had flat plain bands. Each side is carved with five rows of neat tegulae with vertical sides, but on one side the middle three rows are smaller than the rest.

Date: early twelfth century.

References: Lang 1974, 218, 222 (Abercorn 2).

RCAHMS Archive: Canmore ID 49123 and 251978; site number NT07NE 1

Abercorn 6, West Lothian, coped grave cover fragment

Measurements: H 0.22m, L 0.33m, W 0.41m

Stone type: sandstone

Place of discovery: NT 0814 7907

Present location: inside the church in the room beneath the Hopetoun Loft.

Evidence for discovery: found on the south side of the church c1893.

Present condition:

Description

This is a fragment from the upper central portion of a grave-cover, with a triple-roll ridge, 114mm wide. Below are three rows of well-cut tegulae with straight sides and rounded tips.

Date: twelfth century.

References: Lang 1974, 222 (Abercorn 3).

RCAHMS Archive: Canmore ID 49123 and 251978; site number NT07NE 1

Abercorn 7, West Lothian, cross-head fragment

Measurements: H 0.36m, W 0.26m, D 0.30m, boss projects by 0.11m

Stone type: sandstone

Place of discovery: NT 0814 7907

Present location: inside the church in the room beneath the Hopetoun Loft.

Evidence for discovery: unknown.

Present condition: very worn and battered.

Description

The fragment includes the central area and part of the two lower arm pits. The arm pits are wide and circular, with double pelletted mouldings. Face A is carved with a circular boss 0.20m in diameter with a central rosette set on two stepped discs, while on face D there is a larger rosette of shallower profile.

Date: eighth or ninth century.

References: RCAHMS 1929, no 274, cross no 6; Calder 1938.

RCAHMS Archive: Canmore ID 49123 and 251978; site number NT07NE 1

Abercorn 8, West Lothian, cross-shaft fragments

Measurements: H upper shaft frag 1.3m, lower shaft frag 1.8m, W 0.41m to 0.28m, D 0.31m to 0.23m

Stone type: sandstone

Place of discovery: NT 0814 7907

Present location: in museum at Abercorn Church.

Evidence for discovery: found re-used as cope-stones in the parapet of the bridge over the Midhope Burn in front of the gates to Midhope Castle, and taken to Abercorn Church in 1934.

Present condition: broken and worn.

Description

These two fragments comprise parts of faces A, B and D, all carved in relief with a plain roll moulding at the corners and an inner roll moulding to frame the panels of ornament (face C is missing entirely). The base of the shaft is plain and extends 0.38m below the lowest panel. Face A is carved with at least five panels, and the lower four complete panels are of equal size. The lowest panel and the third panel from the bottom contain patterns of turned interlace. The second panel from the bottom contains two scrolls of vinescroll inhabited by two non-identical birds, one facing right and the other facing left. Their heads, wings and tails extend outside their respective scrolls, and each has a plain pointed leaf terminating the scroll in front of its chest. The fourth panel is carved with two confronted quadrupeds, their reptilian heads facing right, and their elongated tails interwoven with each other’s limbs and a mesh of interlace. What survives of the top panel shows a variant of the tangled scroll, with a plain node and veined heart-shaped leaves. Faces B and D appear to have been carved with a single panel of ornament, each containing a vine trail. On face B there are hanging short triangular berry bunches, while on face D there are both similar berry bunches and heart-shaped leaves pointing upwards.

Date: eighth century.

References: RCAHMS 1929, no 285; Calder 1938.

RCAHMS Archive: Canmore ID 49123 and 251978; site number NT07NE 1

Abercorn 9, West Lothian, cross-slab fragment

Measurements: c H 0.50m, W 0.45m, D 0.08m (estimated from photograph)

Stone type: sandstone

Place of discovery: NT 0814 7907

Present location: inside the church in the room beneath the Hopetoun Loft.

Evidence for discovery: found in the churchyard.

Present condition: the base is broken but the carving is clear.

Description

The thick rectangular slab has been incised with an equal-armed outline cross, set on a shaft of which only the very top survives.

Date: ninth century.

References: RCAHMS 1929, no 274, cross no 4.

RCAHMS Archive: Canmore ID 49123 and 251978; site number NT07NE 1

Abercorn 10, West Lothian, fragment of grave-marker?

Measurements: H 0.64, W 0.38m, D 0.12m

Stone type: sandstone

Place of discovery: NT 0814 7907

Present location: inside the church in the room beneath the Hopetoun Loft.

Evidence for discovery:

Present condition: the base, top and one narrow face are trimmed but the carving on the other narrow face is clear.

Description

Part of a rectangular slab carved with a roll moulding along both edges of face B with a small inner roll moulding on either side. Face A is otherwise plain but dressed smooth apart from a band of rough surface along the sinister edge. Within the frame formed by the roll moulding on face B is a three-strand interlace pattern, extending for about 0.23m, and the rest is plain. This slab appears to be an unfinished grave-marker.

Date: uncertain.

References: Aliaga-Kelly 1996, 411, fig PT 3.17.

RCAHMS Archive: Canmore ID 49123 and 251978; site number NT07NE 1

Abercorn 11, West Lothian, recumbent grave-cover?

Measurements: L 1.83m, W 0.56m, D 0.27m

Stone type: sandstone

Place of discovery: NT 0814 7907

Present location: in the churchyard to the right of the west door of the church.

Evidence for discovery: none.

Present condition: weathered with lichen growth.

Description

This very substantial slab has two parallel grooves hollowed out of face A, perhaps designed to create a cross-shaft in relief. Narrow face D has an incised line forming a frame close to the edges of the slab. This may be an unfinished recumbent grave-cover.

Date: twelfth or thirteenth century?

References: none.

Compiled by A Ritchie 2016

Archaeology Notes

NT07NE 1.00 08141 79097

(NT 0814 7910) Church on supposed site of Abercorn Monastery (NR)

OS 6" map (1922).

NT07NE 1.01 Centred NT 08147 79077 Burial-ground (including cross and hogback stone)

NT07NE 1.02 NT 08114 79046 Museum (including cross-shafts)

Location formerly entered as NT 0814 7911.

Trial work at this monastic site, the 'Aebbercurnig' of Bede, now a parish church and kirkyard, began in 1963, and was extended further by A C Thomas, for Edinburgh University Archaeology Dept. Six areas were opened, one within the kirkyard, revealing two phases of occupation.

The earlier corresponds to the Anglian monastery, established some time before 685, perhaps temporarily abandoned at that date following the Northumbrian defeat at Nechtansmere, but apparently re-occupied in time to produce the series of 8th century Anglian crosses now housed in the vestry.

The monastery consisted of a large roughly oval enclosure sited on a spur between the confluence of two streams. With difficulty, this vallum can still be traced. In the N part of the interior, N of the present church, the Romanesque nave of which may occupy the site of the Anglian chapel, cuttings have revealed traces of two small, apparently rectangular structures, possibly cells. One is constructed of thick, dry-stone walls, the other is defined by a long sleeper-beam trench, and perhaps median post-holes. Sherds of class E imported ware in primary contexts confirm the dating of this phase.

The later period of use, separated from the earlier by several feet of collapse and a laid pavement, yielded 13th century pottery, animal bones, slag and some minor artifacts. These may refer to no more than a former vicarage (existing here in 1274) or possibly a lodging for the bishop of Dunkeld in the previous century, when Abercorn was in that diocese.

Excavations were continued after 1965, and in 1967 Thomas states that what may be the N and (apsidal) E sides of a small wooden church and internally (less apse) of the order of 20' x 27' had been found, defined by sleeper-beam trenches - presumably those mentioned earlier. Three hog-backed stones are also in the vestry.

The present church dedicated to St Serf (H Scott 1915) dates from the later 11th century and has been much altered; originally it consisted of an aisleless nave and chancel.

J R Allen and J Anderson 1903; RCAHMS 1929, visited 1926; SDD List 1964; D M Wilson and D G Hurst 1965.

Abercorn Church is in normal use. There is no real evidence of the monastery but at NT 0814 7912, in the bottom of several excavation trenches, are the footings of stone walls. These may be the remains of the vicarage or lodging house referred to by Thomas. An unsurveyable ridge crosses the SE part of the present graveyard and may represent the vallum. The hog-backed stones and cross-slabs were not seen, the vestry being locked.

Visited by OS (JP), 27 March 1974.

Abercorn Parish Church: In origin a 12th century church of the standard two-cell type, but the only feature certainly of that date is the blocked S door squeezed in between later burial aisles. The church was reconstructed in 1579 and three appendages were added later to the S side for local families. The Philpstoun enclosure, dated 1727, and the Binns aisle of 1618 are built on to the nave. The Duddingston aisle of 1603 abuts the (former) chancel which was fitted out in 1708 as the Hopetoun Aisle; an annexe was built to the N at that time. In 1893, the church was restored; the old belfry was rebuilt and the W end Normanized; an aisle was added along the N side.

C McWilliam 1978.

Architecture Notes

Non-Guardianship Sites Plan Collection DC23010-DC23013,1964-1965.

NMRS REFERENCE:

Architect: Sir William Bruce 1708 (Hopetoun Aisle - carving by William Eizat, painting by Richard Waitt)

Sir William Bruce c.1700 (Laird's loft)

NMRS Miscellaneous:

Reprinted from Proc. Soc. Antiq. Soc. Vol LXXII by Charles S. T. Calder 'Three Fragments of a Sculptured Cross' - text and drawings (D5/WG(P))

Reprinted from Proc. Soc. Antiq. Soc. Vol LXXII by Thomas Ross 'Hog-backed Monuments' - text and drawings.

(Undated) information in NMRS.

Activities

Measured Survey

Drawings by A Walker Webster in the National Art Survey of Scotland Collection.

Measured Survey

Drawings by John S Hardie in the National Art Survey of Scotland Collection.

References

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