Font Size

100% 150% 200%

Background Colour

Default Contrast
Close Reset

All our staffed properties, sites and offices, including the HES Archives and Library, are currently closed, but we’re working on plans to gradually reopen. In the meantime, you can access our services online. Find out more.

Gatehouse Of Fleet, Birtwhistle Mills

Cotton Mill(S) (18th Century), Visitor Centre (Modern)

Site Name Gatehouse Of Fleet, Birtwhistle Mills

Classification Cotton Mill(S) (18th Century), Visitor Centre (Modern)

Alternative Name(s) Gatehouse Mills; Mill On The Fleet Visitor Centre

Canmore ID 63645

Site Number NX55NE 23

NGR NX 59900 56367

Datum OSGB36 - NGR


Ordnance Survey licence number 100057073. All rights reserved.
Canmore Disclaimer. © Copyright and database right 2020.

Toggle Aerial | View on large map

Digital Images

Administrative Areas

  • Council Dumfries And Galloway
  • Parish Girthon
  • Former Region Dumfries And Galloway
  • Former District Stewartry
  • Former County Kirkcudbrightshire

Archaeology Notes

NX55NE 23 59900 56367

Mill on the Fleet

(visitor centre) [NAT]

OS (GIS) MasterMap, August 2009.

For Birtwistle Street (NX 60067 56654 to 60000 56598), see NX65NW 108.

(Location cited as NS 599 564). Cotton mills, built c. 1785 by Birtwhistle and Sons. The roofless ivy-covered remains of a three-storey mill and foundation remains of two other mills, with lade and wheelpit. The axle hole for the whell of the former is clearly visible.

In Birtwistle Street (NX 601 566) is a row of cottages of typically English design built for workers in the mills. (See NX65NW 108).

J R Hume 1976.

This mill has now been converted into the Mill on the Fleet visitor centre.

Information from RCAHMS (LKFJ), March 2002.

This mill has been powered from a lade immediately to the S.

Information from RCAHMS (RJCM), 6 August 2009.


Publication Account (1976)

Cotton Mills. built c.1785, by Birtwhistle and Sons. The roofless ivy-coverd remains of a 3-storey mill and foundation remains of 2 other mills, with lade and wheelpit. The axle hole for the wheel of the former is clearly visible.

In Birtwhistle Street is a row of cottages of typical English design built for workers in the mills.

J R Hume 1976

Publication Account (1986)

With its bright colour-washed buildings, wide streets and hilly tree-clad setting, there could scarcely be a less industrial image than that presented by Gatehouse of Fleet. Yet, for a few decades, this trim little town was the centre of the cotton textile industry in Galloway and stood close to the forefront of the industrial revolution in Scotland. It is this contrast that makes Gatehouse of Fleet such a worth while subject for archaeological rediscovery.

In 1785 James Murray of Broughton and Cally, founder of Gatehouse, granted a lease on the banks of the River Fleet in his recently established village to Messrs Birtwhistle and Sons, a Yorkshire firm of cattle dealers and merchants, who had been thwarted in their initial attempts to build a cotton mill near Kirkcudbright. They built two water-powered mills; a third mill in the same complex was added by a Mr McWilliam, and a fourth was established at the north-eastern end of the village by the Ulster firm of Thomas Scott and Company. Altogether, these spinning and weaving mills employed a workforce of more than 500, and required the services of a brass foundry to maintain the metal parts of their machinery in running order. By the 1790s the centre of Gatehouse also contained two tanneries, a soapwork (by-products of the cattle trade), and a brewery. As a source of power the Fleet was inadequate, and an elaborate water-course, 6.4km long, was engineered to draw 'copious streams of water' to two dams at the head of the village. But the river was useful as a means of transport, and to improve access a 1.3km-long reach between Gatehouse and Skyreburn Bay was canalised in 1824-5. Thanks to David McAdam, a local merchant and shipowner, the shallow landing-place at Boat Green (NX 598560) was replaced in 1836-7 by a new quay at the head of the canal, usable by ships of 300 tons and ever since known as Port McAdam.

By this date, however, the textile industries of Gatehouse had lost their impetus, having been unable to compete with steam-powered and better transport related mills elsewhere. After Murray's death in 1799 Scott's mill closed, later to be converted into an estate sawmill. The Birtwhistle mills were idle between 1810 and 1832, at which date they were acquired by Messrs James Davidson and Company. Having quickly rebuilt a mill gutted by fire in 1840, this company fought valiantly to remain in business, but survived only until about 1850. Their mills subsequently came into the possession of a firm of timber merchants, who converted one of the buildings into a bobbin mill. Pirns and bobbins were manufactured here until the early 1930s; by that decade the sawmill and barracks that had been Scott's mill had probably become a private house, the main brewery had closed (in 1911), and Port McAdam was being used commercially for the last time.

The best-preserved of the early cotton mills is the three-storeyed building at the head of Ann Street (NX 603563) that began life as Scott's mill. Of the Birtwhistle complex there is the ivy-clad (and dangerous) ruin ofa four-storeyed mill (NX 599563) and the overgrown foundations of two others, the positions of the large water-wheels still being discernible. The activities of this fIrm are now best represented by terraced rows of single- and two-storeyed workers' houses in Birtwhistle Street (NX 601566) and Catherine Street (NX 600565). Other survivors from Gatehouse's industrial heyday include the former brewery (NX 599563), a sizeable three-storeyed and hip-roofed block which stands above the Fleet Bridge; on the opposite side of the High Street, below the Angel Hotel, is the building which used to be the main tannery (NX 599562). The remains of the water-power system are worthy of exploration, and the straight line of the Fleet Canal still presents itself very obviously to view. The remains of the drystone, timber-fronted quay at Port McAdam were repaired in 1975 for use by pleasure craft, one facet of Gatehouse's best-ever industry-tourism and leisure.

Information from ‘Exploring Scotland’s Heritage: Dumfries and Galloway’, (1986).


MyCanmore Image Contributions

Contribute an Image

MyCanmore Text Contributions