Sanday, Quoy Banks
Inhumation(S) (Viking), Mound (Viking), Ship Burial (Viking)
Site Name Sanday, Quoy Banks
Alternative Name(s) The Crook Beach; Scar, Viking Burials And Settlement
Canmore ID 3494
Site Number HY64NE 7
NGR HY 6780 4584
Datum OSGB36 - NGR
- Council Orkney Islands
- Parish Cross And Burness
- Former Region Orkney Islands Area
- Former District Orkney
- Former County Orkney
In 1991, coastal erosion revealed a Viking burial at Scar, Sanday. The burial was of a type known as a boat grave and contained three individuals; an elderly female, an adult male and a child of around ten.
Excavation of the site showed that it comprised a seven metre-long boat, which had been deliberately placed in a pit that was aligned E-W. Large stones filled the eastern end of the boat, creating a chamber at the western end into which the bodies had been placed.
The grave goods found indicate that this was an important burial. Several high-status objects were discovered, including a decorated whalebone plaque that survived virtually intact. Dating evidence suggests the burial would have taken place at the end of the 9th century AD.
Information from RCAHMS (HDS) 24 January 2012
Graham-Campbell, J and Batey, C E 1998
Owen, O and Dalland, M 1999
HY64NE 7 6780 4584.
HY 6780 4584. Mound, The Crook Beach: An irregular grassy mound 8m across and 1m high, with a section-end of a heavy dry-stone wall visible in its eroded seaward face.
A Viking boat burial eroding out of a N-facing beach section 1km NE of Scar, was discovered in September 1991. The boat was excavated in November and December the same year by a team from Historic Scotland-Kinnaird Park.
The boat was aligned E to W along the shore line. About one half of the boat had been washed away by the sea, but the S half of the boat still survived behind the beach section. The shape of the boat was still visible by the pattern of rivets in the sand showing the positions of the individual planks in the boat. The boat was about 6.5m long, 1.6m wide, and 55cm to 60cm deep.
A flagstone was set vertically across the boat, dividing it into two compartments. The E compartment, about one third of the total length, was filled with stones. The W compartment formed the burial chamber. The chamber contained skeletal remains of the bodies of a man, a woman and a child. The man, in the W end of the boat, lay on his back with his legs flexed and arms folded over his lap. On his right side was a sword (Petersen type H) set in a wooden scabbard, and a quiver of arrows. Between his hands was a composite comb made from bone and antler. Below his legs was a group of twenty-two bone or antler gaming pieces.
The female and child were lying in a supine position next to each other, to the E of the male skeleton. Most of the bones from these two bodies had either been washed away by the sea, or been badly disturbed by animal (otter) disturbance. Between the female skeleton and the S side of the boat were two spindle whorls, a pair of shears, and several, as yet unidentified, iron objects. Some of these might be fittings for a wooden box which could have contained the shears and one of the spindle whorls. On the right-hand side of her feet, close to the E end of the chamber, was a decorated whalebone plaque.
In the anticipated chest region of the female body was an iron sickle with remains of a wooden handle. This handle partly overlay an equal-armed brooch, lying upside down. The brooch was made from gilded bronze, with the needle and possible remains of textiles preserved in the corrosion products. The brooch was decorated with Borre Style gripping beasts.
In the sand in front of the section two Viking lead bullion weights were found, indicating that the grave had contained a set of scales.
In connection with the excavation, a geophysical survey of the land area along the shore was undertaken, westwards from the boat-burial. The survey revealed several anomalies of potential archaeological interest, but only excavation could determine if any of these elements are connected with the Viking boat-burial.
Sponsors: HS, Orkney Islands Council.
M Dalland 1992.
HY 677 458. A topographical survey was carried out by AOC (Scotland) Ltd of the area to the SW of the boat burial, to relate any topographical features with the anomalies recorded during the geophysical survey.
Some of the anomalies coincided with topographical features, but only excavation could determine if any of these elements are connected with the Viking boat-burial.
Sponosor: Historic Scotland
M Dalland 1993.
Scheduled as Scar, Viking burials and settlement.
Information from Historic Scotland, scheduling document dated 27 February 1995.
The archive from the 1991 rescue excavation at Sanday, Quoy Banks has been catalogued. The archive consists of manuscripts, photographic material and drawings.
Historic Scotland Archive Project (SW) 2002.
Field Visit (1999)
An elongated amorphous grassy mound lies close to the coast edge. Aligned north-south, it measures 20m in length by 10m in width and stands up to 1.5m high. There are some earthfast stones visible towards its summit. There are large quantities of blown sand in the near vicinity and it is possible that this feature may be entirely natural or that it may be very much exaggerated in size by the drifting sand.
Moore & Wilson 1999.
Coastal Zone Assessment Survey, 1999