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Bual-loid

Farmstead (Period Unassigned)

Site Name Bual-loid

Classification Farmstead (Period Unassigned)

Alternative Name(s) Buaile-leathaid

Canmore ID 90839

Site Number ND15SW 40

NGR ND 107 523

Datum OSGB36 - NGR

Permalink http://canmore.org.uk/site/90839

Ordnance Survey licence number AC0000807262. All rights reserved.
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Administrative Areas

  • Council Highland
  • Parish Halkirk
  • Former Region Highland
  • Former District Caithness
  • Former County Caithness

Activities

Field Visit (30 November 2012 - 11 December 2012)

ND 0966 5120 A walkover survey of Braehour Forest Block, S of Halkirk was undertaken, 30 November – 11 December 2012, to locate archaeological sites prior to tree felling. A survey undertaken in 1977 led by Roger Mercer prior to woodland planting had recorded 49 sites. The area had been deeply ploughed and substantially furrowed for planting of the woodland and most of the sites, which were small mounds or turf-built shielings, were not located. Surviving sites were located adjacent to stream courses, where ploughing did not reach the edges, or within forest rides. A total of 25 new sites were recorded, including hut circles, farmsteads, shielings, boundary dykes, cairns, enclosures and tracks. The new hut circles were located amongst the previously known hut circles N of Achlibster Hill.

Archive: RoCAS. Report: Highland HER and OASIS

Funder: Forestry Commission Scotland

Steven Birch, Lynn Fraser and Mary Peteranna, Ross and Cromarty Archaeological Services, 2013

(Source: DES)

Newly recorded sites included:

Post medieval / unknown date

ND 11262 49991 - A large area of peat cutting is located within a clearing in the forestry plantation. The ground is crossed by banks left to access the area.

ND 10968 52304 - A raised, grass-covered track or dyke 0.3m high measures 3m wide with a ditch to both sides.

ND 11636 49903 - A grass-, moss- and reed-covered semi-circular bank is located at the edge of a ride. The banks are spread 2.5-3.5m wide and stands up to 0.5m high. Truncated to the E.

ND 09217 50919 - Located on the SE side of the stream is an arc of possible turf bank built up on the stream side to 0.6m high. There is a level platform to the side of the bank measuring 8m in diameter and a small mound to E of the structure.

ND 09239 50924 - A tussocky grass-covered mound measuring 2.5-3m in diameter and stands up to 0.4m high.

ND 08330 52198 - A disused track to access the possible peat quarry.

ND 08191 52169 - An extensive area appears to have been quarried, although really cleared of peat; stacks of peat remain in the area, which may have been used by the Forestry Commission during plantation works.

ND 10058 52637 - Under grasses, heather and moss are the mostly degraded remains of a hut circle measuring 14m NW-SE by 12m over turf banks spread to 3m wide and standing up to 0.4m high.

ND 10024 52660 - Under grasses and rushes are the mostly degraded remains of a hut circle measuring 12m NW-SE by 11m over turf banks spread 2-3m wide and standing up to 0.4m high. The interior diameter is 6m across.

ND 09999 52755 - An area of extensive peat cutting was located within open ground between forestry plantations.

ND 10531 52060 - An amorphous turf-covered mound measuring 10m in diameter and standing up to 0.4m high. There is a possible arc of bank on SE side. A possible cairn or hut circle site.

ND 10637 52169 - A sub-rectangular enclosure comprising turf covered stone banks standing up to 0.5m high and spread 1.5-2m wide.

ND 10687 52188 - Located on a rushes- and grass-covered rise is a large and low spread of stone mostly covered by vegetation. It stands up to 1m high at ENE side and measures 15m N-S by 8m. Possibly the remains of a prehistoric cairn or field clearance.

ND 11042 52166 - A grass-covered turf/stone dyke forming a field enclosure with banks spread 3-4m wide

and standing up to 1.2m high. Large slabs are visible in places and there is a ditch to the SE side.

ND 11161 52260 - A stone/turf dyke with banks spread up to 2m wide and standing up to 0.5m high.

ND 11191 52397 - A stone/turf dyke with banks spread up to 2m wide and standing up to 0.5m high.

ND 11292 51955 - An extensive area of peat cutting to the SE, S and SW of the farmstead.

ND 10540 53103 - Under grass, heather rushes and trees is a

possible disused trackway leading from the road. It measures 2.5m wide and is slightly sunken into the ground surface.

ND 10516 53323 - A turf dyke aligned ENE-WSW with banks are spread up to 1m wide and standing up to 0.5m high under grass, rushes and moss probably formed part of a field boundary.

ND 10478 53239 - A turf dyke located within a forest ride is aligned N-S. The banks are spread up to 1.8m wide and stand up to 0.6m high.

ND 10854 52745 - Under grass and rushes is a turf/stone dyke running NE-SW through a ride in the forestry

plantation. The banks are spread 2-3m wide and stand up to 1m high. There is a ditch on the N side of the dyke.

ND 10802 52556 - A grass- and rushes-covered turf/stone dyke with ditch.

ND 11244 52652 - Located on slightly raised ground in a low, marshy area are the very degraded remains of a stone structure w/ attached enclosure walls covered in rushes and grass. The subrectangular structure measures 11m NE- SW by 5m w/ walls up to 0.6m high.

ND 09537 51283 - Located on SW side of burn is grass- and rushes-covered mound that is slightly higher than the surrounding ground. It measures 6m in diameter and stands up to 0.3m high. Possible shieling site, may be natural.

ND 11282 52054 - A ruinous farmstead built of Caithness slab with a stone slabbed roof. It measures 12m E- W by 5m externally and stands to roof height. Roof is partially collapsed. Internal partitions comprise large thin Caithness slabs which have been plastered over.

ND 11284 52044 - Located to SW of farmstead are 3 set, Caithness slabs measuring 1.5m long by 0.5m. Its function is unknown.

ND - 09777 52459 - A low, grass-covered mound under rushes and grassy tussocks measures 5m in diameter and stands up to 0.2m high. There is no visible structure to the mound and its function is unknown.

ND 11244 52652 - Located on slightly raised ground in a low, marshy area are the very degraded remains of a stone structure w/ attached enclosure walls covered in rushes and grass. The subrectangular structure measures 11m NE- SW by 5m w/ walls up to 0.6m high.

ND 09537 51283 - Located in a ride is a series of low grass covered mounds under moss and rushes. The mounds stand to 0.25m high in an area measuring 6m N-S by 10m E-W. A small pile of stone 1m in diameter sits within the trees to NW.

ND 08682 49439 - Located on the E side of the burn is a substantial grass- and rushes-covered mound measuring 7.5m NW-SE by 5.5m and stands up to 1m high. There is no visible entrance and only a circular depression 3m NE-SW by 1.5m wide is visible at the centre.

ND 08682 52680 - Located on the N side of burn under heather, grass and moss is a semi-circular low bank attached to a slight break of slope. It measures 8m E-W by 6m with part of a bank visible spread to 0.8m wide and 0.3m high.

ND 07348 51087 - Located on SE side of stream under grass and rushes is a mound standing up to 2m high. It measures 11m NW-SE internally and 5.5m wide. There may be two partition walls and an entrance in the SW wall. Possibly overlies an earlier (hut circle?) structure.

ND 11102 49689 - A grass-covered amorphous mound under rushes is located on the edge of ride 60m N of track and adjacent to a stream to W. It measures 6.5m N-S by 5m and stands up to 0.8m high. Truncated by a ditch to E, which has thrown up a low bank.

ND 09407 51035 - Located on the E side of the stream is a low grass- and rushes-covered platform measuring 10m in diameter and surrounded by wet ground. Possibly natural or remains of shieling site.

ND 10085 49804 - A grass-covered oval shieling mound measuring 7m E-W by 6m and standing up to 0.8m high. There is no visible entrance. A possible very degraded turf dyke runs off the SSE side.

ND 09810 52499 - Under grass and rushes is a subcircular mound measuring 5m E-W by 4m and standing up to 0.3m high. It may be a shieling mound, although there are no structural remains visible.

ND 11666 49811 - Located within dense forestry plantation are the remains of a stone-built farmstead standing 0.8-1m high with walls 0.6m wide. There are 3 compartments: N and central units measure 3m N-S by 2.5m, S unit measures 4m N-S by 2.5m. Entrance in the E wall.

ND 08630 49683 - Two grass-covered amorphous-shaped mounds with depressions in the centre are located on the E side of the burn. NE mound measures 7m N-S by 5m and stands up to 0.6m high; W mound measures 5m NW-SE by 4m and stands up to 0.6m high.

ND 08662 49443 - Located on the E side of the burn is a low, grass-covered tussocky mound measuring 6m NW-SE by 5m and stands up to 0.5m high. There is no visible entrance and no banks are visible. It may have been a double-cell shieling site.

ND 09994 52572 - Under grasses and rushes is the remains of a hut circle set within a flat landscape. It measures 16m NW-SE by 14m over banks spread to 4m wide and standing 1.2-1.8m high. Entrance to SE; tussocky grass masks much of the structure.

ND 08615 52612 - Located on the S side of the burn is a large grass-covered, sub-oval mound measuring 15m E-W by 8m and up to 2.2m high. It is covered in tussocks w/ some indication of banks, spread 0.8-1m wide and up to 0.6m high, on the E and SE sides.

ND 10078 52757 - Under grasses and heather is a U-shaped, oval bank aligned NE-SW, which has been interpreted as a burnt mound. It measures 12m long by 8m over banks spread 3-4m and standing up to 0.7m high. The opening to E measures 2.5m wide.

ND 10071 49807 - A grass-covered subrectangular shieling mound measuring 4m NE-SW in diameter and standing up to 0.6m high. There is no visible entrance; some sections of banks are visible spread up to 1.2m wide.

ND 10766 52279 - An amorphous spread of stone, some dumped in heaps which may be clearance material overlying a possible building. It measures 12m N-S by 10m and to 0.6m high.

ND 10787 52291 - A turf-covered stone-built longhouse measures 48m long over walls 0.8m wide and standing up to 0.5-1.4m high. There are no visible entrances.

ND 10471 53336 - Grass- and rushes-covered stone-built footings of a possible earlier farmstead. It measures 11m NE-SW by 2.5m internally w/ walls spread 0.8-1.4m wide and standing up to 0.5m high. An annex at the NE end measures 3m NE-SW by 1.8m.

ND 08653 49471 - Located on the W side of the burn is a grass covered mound measuring 5m NW-SE by 4.5m and stands up to 0.5m high. There is no visible entrance and no banks are visible. It may have been a shieling site.

ND 10124 49754 - Part of a low mound was visible within the dense forestry plantation, which may be the remains of a shieling that has been ploughed through. It measures 8m NW-SE by 5m and standing up to 0.7m high. Some scattered stone was visible in the area.

ND 10319 52033 - A low, turf-covered mound may be a cairn. It measures 4m in diameter and stands up to 0.3m high.

ND 10473 53352 - Located on SE side of burn on the edge of a terrace is a stone-built longhouse w/ some mortared joints and three partitions; walls are 0.5-2.5m high, 0.6-0.7m wide. It measures 26m long NE-SW by 3m wide; the central unit has been re-used as a sheep pen.

ND 10864 52604 - Under rushes and tussocky grass are the very degraded remains of a farmstead, very difficult to define but appears to be a longhouse w/ two possible cells at SW end. It may measure up to 70m long NE-SW by 4m wide.

ND 09737 53087 - On the S side of burn under grass and rushes is a stone-built farmstead w/ three compartments and an enclosure attached at the NW end. SE unit 3m across, central unit 6m NW-SE by 3.2m, NW unit 8m NW-SE by 3.5m over walls 0.8m wide and up to 1.2m high.

ND 09735 53094 - On the S side of burn under grass and rushes is a stone-built farmstead w/ three compartments and an enclosure attached at the NW end. SE unit 3m across, central unit 6m NW-SE by 3.2m, NW unit 8m NW-SE by 3.5m over walls 0.8m wide and to 1.2m high

ND 09719 53078 - Located 18m W of main farmstead is a rectangular stone-built bothy measuring 3.5m E-W by 3.2m externally with walls 0.8m wide. There is an entrance in the E wall. It is built over a possible earlier farmstead.

ND 09713 53078 - Underlying bothy at ND 09719 53078 is possible farmstead measuring 12m E-W by 7m with turf/stone walls spread up to 1.2m wide and standing up to 0.3m high.

ND 09722 53065 - A turf/stone-built enclosure is visible under high grasses and rushes. The banks are spread 1.5-2m wide and stand up to 0.5m high. It measures 29m E-W by 17m, where visible, and is probably associated with the farmstead.

ND 08703 49268 - A grass-covered amorphous-shaped mound is located on the E bank of the burn. It measures 7m NW-SE by 6m and stands up to 0.9m high. There are projections on the W & SE sides which may be associated with an entrance(s). Possible shieling site.

ND 08700 49234 - Located on a projection into the burn on the E side is a possible shieling sites. It comprises tussocky degraded mounds.

ND 08745 49212 - A grass- and rushes-covered subcircular mound is located on the E bank of the burn. It measures 10m NW-SE by 8m and stands up to 0.6m high. It is possibly a multicellular shieling.

ND 08757 49206 - A grass- and rushes-covered subcircular mound is located on the E bank of the burn. It measures 5m in diameter and stands up to 0.5m high. It is a possible shieling site.

ND 08379 52202 - The ruins of abutments for a bridge along access track to W side of burn. Comprises Caithness flagstones, concrete blocks and steel culvert. Possibly used by Forestry Commission to access works staging area during ploughing of the area, never planted.

Prehistoric

ND 10587 52191 - Located in a ride under grass, rushes and moss is a turf-covered stone bank, possible forming a small (prehistoric?) enclosure. It measures 1m NE-SW by 14m and stands up to 0.4m high with banks spread 2-2.5m wide.

ND 10577 52053 - Under rushes, heather and grass is a prominent mound which may be a mostly degraded hut circle. It stands 0.5m high in open ground, with part of a turf bank 2.5m wide on the SE to SW side; measured 12-14m in diameter.

ND 11685 49881 - D 08577 52617 - Located under dense grass, bracken and rushes is a possible shieling on the N side of a burn. It measures 5m N-S by 4m and stands up to 0.6m high on a slight platform.

ND 10142 52684 - Located under rushes and grass are the remains of a hut circle comprising a sub-oval turf bank up to 0.3m high and spread to 2m wide. It measures 10m N-S by 9m and there is no visible entrance.

ND 10154 52702 - Located under rushes and grass are the remains of a hut circle comprising most of a sub-circular turf bank up to 0.5m high and spread to 2.5m wide. It measures 13m NW-SE by 11m and there is a possible entrance to SE.

ND 09898 52582 - A turf- and grass-covered mound is located to the W of two hut circles. It measures 6m in diameter and stands up to 1m high. There is no structure visible on the mound.

ND 10022 52561 - Located 20m E of a large hut circle under grass and rushes is the low banks of a second hut circle measuring 10m NW-SE by 8.5m over banks spread to 1.8m wide and standing up to 0.4m high. It is mostly degraded although there is a possible entrance to SE.

ND 09765 52485 - Located under grass and rushes are the remains of a hut circle comprising a subcircular turf bank spread 1.5-2m wide and standing up to 0.4m high. The structure measures 12m NE-SW by 10m. Possible entrance to NE.

ND 09729 52362 - Located on a low, prominent knoll under grasses, rushes and moss is the remains of a hut circle. The low circular structure measures 11.5m E-W by 11m across with banks spread 1.5-1.8m wide and up to 0.3m high. There is no visible entrance.

ND 10323 52048 - Located in a ride is a turf-covered mound measuring 8m in diameter and standing up to 0.5m high.

ND 09740 52519 - Under grass/rushes are the remains of a hut circle comprising sections of subcircular turf bank spread to 2m wide and up to 0.4m high. It measures 11m in diameter and has been truncated by ploughing; E to W arc best preserved. Possible entrance to ESE.

OASIS ID - rosscrom1-139465

Note

A farmstead comprising one roofed, one unroofed and one partially roofed, long building is depicted on the 1st edition of the OS 6-inch map (Caithness 1876, sheet xxii). One unroofed building of two compartments is shown on the current edition of the OS 1:10560 map (1963).

Information from RCAHMS (SAH) 27 November 1995

References

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