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Antonine Wall: Twechar - Dullatur

Frontier Defence (Roman)

Site Name Antonine Wall: Twechar - Dullatur

Classification Frontier Defence (Roman)

Canmore ID 45872

Site Number NS77NW 49

NGR NS 7250 7622

NGR Description From NS 7000 7588 to NS 7500 7723

Datum OSGB36 - NGR

Permalink http://canmore.org.uk/site/45872

Ordnance Survey licence number 100057073. All rights reserved.
Canmore Disclaimer. © Copyright and database right 2020.

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Digital Images


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Administrative Areas

  • Council North Lanarkshire
  • Parish Cumbernauld
  • Former Region Strathclyde
  • Former District Cumbernauld And Kilsyth
  • Former County Dunbartonshire

Archaeology Notes

NS77NW 49.00 From 7000 7588 to 7500 7723.

RRX 505 centre 716 761.

RRX 505 c.70 75.

NS77NW 49.01 NS 723 762 Nethercroy - Trial excavation

NS77NW 49.02 From NS 746 772 to NS 747 772 Easter Dullatur House - Field survey area

NS77NW 49.03 NS 702 759 Bar Farm, Twechar - Antonine Wall

NS77NW 49.04 NS 718 762 Girnal Hill - Antonine Wall

NS77NW 49.05 NS 7064 7597 to NS 7395 7699 Croy - Antonine Wall; Military Way

The Wall was exposed at NS 7386 7698 during construction of the railway. The Wall as viewed at Croy Hill is composed of turf, and no large stones are present. Taking a section of the turf construction it can be seen that it comprises different coloured earths. The soils are layered, the sections being transverse. There is a tracery of lines, varying from deep black, to deep red or purple, visible on the face of each section. In the sections at Croy and Barr Hills nineteen layers were revealed, their heights varying from 4ft 4 ins to 4ft 10 ins. From the evidence revealed by the soil layers it could be concluded that the wall may have been in the region of 10ft in height. Modern military precedent would suggest, according to the report of the Glasgow Archaeological Society, that "sods not over 6 ins. thick originally would, by the dressing or trimming necessary to fit them for their purpose, and by the weight of the sods built over them, be compressed into something like half that thickness." The average breadth of the stone base of the wall is 14 ft, and the 'berm is the ledge or platform' which is located between the edge of the ditch and the base of the wall itself. Earth from the ditch situated on the N side has been piled up with the apparent purpose of raising the height of the counterscarp.the average width of the ditch is about 40 ft and depth about 12 ft.

In order to reach the summit of Croy Hill, which is 460 ft above sea level, the vallum had to ascend 'steep and frequent' slopes, and there must have been considerable difficulty in digging the ditch. It was necessary, in some sections, to take the line through solid rock. The ditch is clearly visible right across Croy Hill.

Barr Hill, 464 ft above sea level, is then traversed by the vallum. In this area the ditch is 38 ft in width and retains its original and 'unmistakable V shape.'

Rel and Illust Arch 12 1906.

The Croy Section No. II (NS 730 763) on the Antonine Wall, previously cut by the Glasgow Archaeological Society, and opened twice by the Society's Antonine Wall Committee, was reopened again in 1967. The width of the stone base of the Wall, from N kerb to S kerb (outer faces) was as expected, 14ft, but to the north of the N kerb stone, at a depth of almost 1ft below the level of the N kerb, there appears to be a lower band of large stones, with some laid turf above them. Above the 14ft-wide stone base, laid turf was in position to a height of only 3ft. as similarly described in the 1899 Report (Glasgow Archaeological Society 1899).

A S Robertson 1969

NS 7000 7588 to NS 7064 7600 Published course (OS 25 inch 1958) was resurveyed. Though poorly defined through most of this sector and there are no intelligible remains of the Rampart or Outer Mound, the exact course is not in doubt and the line of the Ditch is traceable throughout. The Ditch varies from being an open, silted hollow 0.5 to 1m deep on the E, to an overgrown but sharply profiled hollow about 12m wide and up to 2.5m deep on the W. In the middle area, old mining activity has confused the line. The resurvey has revealed an original alignment angle W of Barr Farm, and at this point, in an arable field, the line of the Rampart was detected in 1980 as a differential crop growth. Part of this section is under the Scottish Development Department (Inspectorate of Ancient Monuments) Guardianship, from NS 7060 7598 to NS 7064 7600.

NS 7064 7600 to NS 7100 7619 The published course (OS 25 inch 1958) was resurveyed. The Ditch is fairly well defined and varies from 8m to 15m in width and from c.1m (on the W) to some 3m deep. It is likely that a c.50m length of Ditch was uncut at NS 7087 7613 owing to the slope and hardness of rock, but from surface evidence this is not obvious and it is possible that a narrowing of the Ditch has been effaced by later land usage and slip; there is a suggestion that the Outer Mound, elsewhere extant in this area, was continuous across this length. There are no intelligible remains of the Rampart, but the sharp terrain around the N side of Castle Hill should not have prevented a continuous, angled construction along a natural terrace. This section is under Scottish Development Department (Inspectorate of Ancient Monuments) Guardianship.

NS 7087 7613 Ditch uncut at this point (Breeze 1979).

NS 7091 7615, NS 7093 7616 and NS 7095 7616 Search holes for the Rampart kerb were dug from 1890-3 (Glasgow Archaeological Society 1899).

NS 7091 7615, NS 7093 7616 and NS 7095 7616 Old excavations were re-opened and new sections cut across the Rampart in 1957 on behalf of the Ministry of Public Buildings and Works in advance of afforestation.

Five of the Antonine Wall Committee's trenches were re-opened at this stage, and a further nine trenches cut, as a result of which the kerb of the Wall was located at ten points.

The new trenches were cut from the now ruined Bar Cottage to the NW side of Castle Hill. Gravel and stones were found in the first three, then the kerb was located in the next three trenches, in the last of which the foundation was found intact, and again the kerb was discovered in the last two trenches. Pegging the points where the kerb stones were found it was discovered that the line of the Wall tallied quite closely with that indicated by Sir George Macdonald's map (1934, Pl XXIV A). It pursues a straight course heading W from the Antonine Wall Committee's No. 1 section 'over the first ridge of Bar Hill' and descending then into the hollow. Gullies cut across the line at this point and these have probably obscured the foundations. Continuing W, the Wall turns slightly to the left until reaching the shoulder of Castle Hill, at which location it describes a curve in order to take advantage of the high ground. The three full sections cut on Bar Hill by the Antonine Wall Committee revealed a foundation of 4.3m in width.

(Keppie and Breeze 1982).

NS 7100 7619 to NS 7175 7620 Published course (OS 25 inch 1958) was resurveyed. The Ditch and Outer Mound are fairly well defined in the western part of this sector and where best preserved the Ditch averages 13m wide and c. 2.5m deep. The Rampart is only discernible for about 100m and forms a spread mound some 7m broad and 1m high. The overgrown depressions of the 1890-3 and 1957 Rampart trenches are still visible, but show no features. This section is under Scottish Development Department (Inspectorate of Ancient Monuments) Guardianship W of NS 7130 7620.

NS 7103 7618, NS 7123 7619 and NS 7126 7619 Three sections were made through the Rampart and a fourth at NS 7132 7619 through the Rampart, Ditch and part of the Outer Mound (indicated) by Glasgow Archaeological Society between 1890 and 1893 (Glasgow Archaeological Society 1899).

Two old sections (NS 7123 7619 and NS 7132 7619) were re-opened on behalf of the then Ministry of Public Buildings and Works in 1957 prior to afforestation. Two others were not located. New sections were cut W of the ruined Bar Hill Cottage (Cruden 1957).

NS 7175 7620 to NS 7200 7621 Published survey (OS 25 inch 1958) revised. No surface trace of the Wall or Military Way. Macdonald's line accepted; the terrace through the cleared Girnal Hill wood was observed in 1957 (Information from OS 1957) as 0.8m high, but the area is now wasteland with dumping having obscured all trace.

NS 7192 7619 The course of the Wall was determined by trenching in this area in 1931 (Macdonald 1934).

NS 7200 7621 to NS 7246 7622 The published survey (OS 25 inch 1958) has been revised. No surface trace: Macdonald's line accepted. Quarrying and tipping subsequent to his trenching has probably destroyed all remains.

NS 7217 7623 and NS 7246 7622 The course of the Rampart was determined by trenching in these areas about 1931 (Macdonald 1934).

NS 7246 7622 to NS 7300 7629 The published course (OS 25 inch 1958) was resurveyed. The rock-cut Ditch often no more than 4m to 5m wide is evident at the base of the cliff-line, and an Outer Mound, emphasising the natural scarp, is discernible. The Rampart is extant for c. 200m as a spread mound c. 6.5m broad and 0.8m high. W of the cliff-line the Ditch only is extant, assuming its normal width of about 12m, before fading near the quarry. This section is under Scottish Development Department (Inspectorate of Ancient Monuments) Guardianship.

NS 7268 7624, NS 7271 7624, NS 7283 7625 and NS 7292 7626 Sections of Rampart and Expansions (see NS77NW 16) by Glasgow Archaeological Society in 1890-3 (Glasgow Archaeological Society 1899).

NS 7283 7625 Old section through the Rampart and Expansion was re-opened in 1967 (see NS77NW 16) (Robertson 1967).

NS 7300 7629 to NS 7321 7652 The published course (OS 25 inch 1958) was resurveyed. The rock-cut Ditch and Outer Mound are well defined, as is a pronounced 'ridge' on top of the counterscarp, a feature unique to this sector. The Ditch is up to 8m wide and 1.5m deep and is forced, by the terrain, to assume an erratic course sharply in contrast to the 'straights and angles' construction elsewhere. The Rampart, however, maintains a series of straights and is partially extant as a much spread mound c 1m high. This section is under Scottish Development Department (Inspectorate of Ancient Monuments) Guardianship.

At NS 7305 7631, NS 7315 7641, NS 7325 7649, NS 7329 7653, NS 7353 7679, NS 7373 7689, NS 7378 7692, NS 7385 7694, NS 7390 7696, and NS 7393 7697 numerous sections of the Rampart were cut between 1890-3 (Glasgow Archaeological Society 1899).

NS 7321 7652 to NS 7397 7700 The published course (OS 25 inch map 1958) was resurveyed. The Ditch and Outer Mound are well defined but there are no intelligible traces of the Rampart. The Ditch averages 12m wide and 1.5m deep; the alignment positions are evident and are now shown in sympathy with the Rampart course.

NS 7322 7648 The Rampart was exposed during excavations at Croy Roman fortlet in 1977-8. (See NS77NW 29) (Hanson 1978, 1979).

NS 7332 7657 Rampart was exposed during excavations at Croy fort in 1920, 1931 and 1935 (See NS77NW 10) (Macdonald 1934, 1937).

NS 7336 7664 Macdonald confirmed an 80 feet break in the Ditch owing to surface rock. (mentioned by Gordon). (Macdonald 1934)

NS 7387 7696 Wall exposed during construction of railway (Cochrane 1906).

NS 7396 7700 to NS 7414 7705 The published survey (OS 25 inch 1958) was revised. The Ditch and Outer mound are well defined, though spread by ploughing. The Ditch is about 18m wide and up to 2m deep. There is no trace of the rampart. There is an obvious alignment angle at NS 7414 7705.

NS 7414 7705 to NS 7455 7713 The published course (OS 25 inch 1958) was resurveyed. Recent land improvement has left only a shallow linear depression of the Ditch (shown as largely extant on the published 1958 plan).

NS 7438 7701 A pipe trench showed stone bottoming and stratified turf standing one and a half feet high (Information from J K St. Joseph to OS).

NS 7455 7713 to NS 7500 7722 The published survey (OS 25 inch 1958) was revised. The exact course is not in doubt, although the only intelligible remains of the Wall and Ditch are in the area of NS 7458 7712 where the sharp profile of the Ditch, about 2m deep and 12m wide, now appears as a burn gully. At this point an old excavation trench cuts the spread mound of the rampart; presumably that referred to at NS 7458 7712. No trace of Outer Mound; the slopes shown on the E side of East Dullatur farm indicate a natural scarp.

NS 7458 7712 Remains of Wall and Military Way were excavated by the then Ministry of Public Buildings and Works in 1958 (Robertson 1973).

NS 7477 7718 Wall foundations were excavated in 1931 (Macdonald 1934).

Information from OS 1980

D J Breeze 1979; R Cochrane 1906; S Cruden 1957; Glasgow Archaeological Society 1899; W S Hanson 1978, 1979; L J F Keppie and D J Breeze 1982; G Macdonald 1934, 1937; A S Robertson 1967, 1973

NS 7276 7376 Oblique aerial photographs (RCAHMS: DB/ 1384-8 cs, 1980) of the Wall reveal details of the Outer Mound including evidence of the dividing of labour stint between work-parties and what appears to be an extensive recutting of the Ditch.

N B Rankov 1982.

The surviving remains of the Wall were subject to a two day excavation prior to proposed landscaping in the area, particularly concentrating on a field bounded on the W by Kilsyth Road and on the E by Nethercroy Road. In 1931 Sir George Macdonald noted that the width of the Wall base in this field was less than the usual 4.3 metres, and at one point was only 3.9 metres. Tracing was difficult due to ploughing and local small-scale quarrying, but the area was of interest being midway between the Bar Hill and Croy Hill Forts and thus a possibility for an interval fortlet, and also there was a question mark over the purpose behind a double change of direction of the wall-base.

In Area 1, beside Nethercroy Road, the N kerb and core, to a width of 3.9 kmetres, survived and scattered stones which may have originally formed the S kerb. In Area 2, 30 metres further W, the S kerb was discovered intact, plus a substantial part of the core which incorporated a culvert. This culvert was 0.2 metres in width and approximately 0.15 metres in depth. The N kerb, now lost, may have been at a position suggested by the neat edge of one slab. There was no surviving turfwork above the stone base, and only a few small lumps of turf slip. There were no indications of an installation or fortlet. At Area 5, about 7 metres further E, the alignment of the S kerb was again confirmed, although there was no sign of the N kerb. N of the main area it was possible to locate the S lip of the ditch, and in Area 3 the berm appeared to be about 9 metres wide. In Area 4, at the extreme W of the field, two small trenches turned up no trace of laid stonework.

This excavation was thus able to confirm the position of the Wall, at any rate in the E section of the field, where tolerable traces remain.

Information from L J F Keppie 1988; S S Frere 1989

The course of the wall was traced across NS 7215 7622 to NS 7250 7622. A geophysical survey in 1989 by Bradford University had suggested an alignment radically different from the traditional one plotted on OS maps; this was found to be erroneous, having been caused by a ridge of rock. The true line was established in Trenches 4 - 5 slightly N of that shown by the OS. Here the stone base was 4.2m wide with good kerbs. In Trenches 6 - 8, c.20m to the E, the stone base was missing, but the ditch was located. The berm in area B is c.9m wide. In Area C, where there is much disturbance by recent quarrying, the stone foundation was found to be increasingly robbed out, but the surviving section was 4.2m wide and the Ditch had a width of 9.2m, although nothing remained of an upcast mound.

S S Frere 1991.

NS 706 759 The alignments of the Wall, ditch and Military Way, on the W slope of Bar Hill, were plotted by resistivity survey in the hope of locating an interval fortlet or other installation, without result.

L J F Keppie 1996

Although the embankment of the Edinburgh-Glasgow railway obliterates the Ditch for a brief stretch, it reappears initially at the left hand side of a minor road, subsequently on the right, by East Dullatur Farm, and then it is visible in the grounds of Easter Dullatur House. In 1958 remains of the Wall, as well as the Military Way, were discovered in this area. The Ditch is visible again, as a well-marked hollow, in farmland to the N of Dullatur village and it is traversed by the Cumbernauld-Dullatur-Kilsyth road a short distance to the W. Further W again it acts as the boundary between two fields, running from E to W and having a stone wall set into its base. Having crossed a small patch of woodland the well-defined hollow of the Ditch can again be seen in the fields.

The remains of the Ditch on Croy Hill are readily visible. At this point the Ditch was dug out of solid dolerite and there remains today a substantial mound formed by the spoil which was thrown out on the N side in the usual manner. There is then a 25m break where the Ditch was never dug and immediately to the W of this there was formerly a small fort (NS77NW 10). A little further W was a fortlet (NS77NW 29), after which the Ditch takes a swing to the N, to 'wind along the face of the hill through what Gordon calls "a long continued Track of Rocks and frightful Precipices."' (Sir George Macdonald).The Ditch has been cut through 'inflexible' rock and to the N there is a steep and sometimes precipitous descent. There appears ot be a small uncut section at one point. For a considerable stretch to the W of the fort there is a grassy track running along the top of the wall as it rises to the top of Croy Hill (145m above sea level) and then makes a rapid descent towards Croy village.

Quarrying has eradicated the line of the Wall and Ditch at the E edge of Croy village. However, when trenching was carried out in 1931, it was discovered that the stone base had survived, was clearly visible for some distance to each side of the trenching and was in a good state of preservation. In 1988-90 further excavations were undertaken before a proposed environmental improvement was to be implemented. The line followed by the Wall and Ditch was confirmed in a stretch descending to Nethercroy Road by a bowling green, and also in a field which is situated between the former road and the B802 running between Cumbernauld and Kilsyth.

A modern track which heads W from the B802 follows the line of the Wall and ditch very closely for some distance, until an area of forestry is reached. It is possible to trace the hollow of the Ditch as it runs on either one or the other side of this track, which has been planned to lie partly in the Ditch and partly over the S edge of this feature.

The modern track leaves the line of the Wall just before a forestry plantation.The Wall continues W on a ridge. Following a 'strip in the woodland' away from 'modern developments' the Ditch is clearly visible. An excavation in 1957, the purpose of which was to prevent tree-planting occurring close to remains of the stone base, confirmed the exact position of the Wall. The Wall, which was generally 4.3m in width in this area, heads for one of its highest points, Castle Hill, the summit of which is 145m above sea level. At the summit the Wall cuts through the multiple defence structures of a small Iron Age hillfort (NS77NW 28).

The fort (NS77NW 8) on the summit of Bar Hill did not utilise the Wall as a defence on its N side, as the Wall runs about 30m to the N of it. It is possible to trace the line of the Ditch continuing W from Bar Hill, although it tends to be obscured by heavy undergrowth. It passed the former Bar farmhouse. In 1983, at a point just E of the farmhouse estate workers cut through a section of the stone base of the Rampart of the Wall, clearly revealing it.

Anne S Robertson and L Keppie 2001.

NS77NW 49.01 723 762

The alignment of the Roman frontier was examined (in December 1988) in advance of landscaping. Beside Nethercroy Road, the stone base was found at a depth of 0.4m, on the line shown on OS maps. Further W, a culvert was found. No complete section was obtained owing to modern disturbance. Beside the Kilsyth Road (B802), attempts to locate the base were unsuccessful. Subsequently, a geophysical survey was undertaken by a team from Bradford Universitty. This suggested an alignment radically different from that shown by the OS; a further excavation is planned.

Sponsor: Strathclyde Regional Council, Dept of Planning.

L Keppie 1989; L J F Keppie et al. 1995.

Five trenches were opened in the field between the Nether Croy and Kilsyth roads. The Wall was badly preserved with no turfwork visible, but the line established by Macdonald in 1931 was confirmed and at one point a culvert was noted; it was 0.2m wide and c.0.15m deep. No traces of a fortlet were seen.

S S Frere 1989.

A length of c.400m of the Antonine frontier was examined prior to possible landscaping, to the E and to the W of the Nethercroy Road. Though the zone E of Nethercroy Road has been badly disfigured by quarrying, coal yards and other industrial activities, the stone base of the Antonine Wall had survived in places, as had the accompanying ditch. At one point the base was found to have a width of 4.2m. The ditch was c9.6m wide. The berm and S faec of the ditch utilised a natural ridge of rock, running E-W. To the W of the Nethercroy Road the remains lie in farmland. The result of the resistivity survey undertaken in 1989 was not confirmed in practice, and the stone base of the Wall (4.2m wide) and the S edge of the ditch were pinpointed on the traditionnal alignment. The stone base of the Wall survived best at the W and E ends of the Field, but was largely ploughed away at the centre. The opportunity was also taken to plot the line of the Military Way. A well-made surface, 3.5m wide was located, accompanied by a drainage gully on its N side. There were no small finds of Roman date.

Sponsors: Strathclyde Regional Council.

L J F Keppie and J J Walker 1990; L J F Keppie et al. 1995.

NS77NW 49.02 746 772

The grounds of East Dullatur House were probed in February 1984 to determine the precise position and state of preservation of the Antonine Wall. No definite alignment for the wall's foundation could be established, though some stonework was located on a plateau W of the driveway, close to the modern surface, slightly N of the line shown on OS maps.

L J F Keppie and J J Walker 1990

NS77NW 49.04 718 762

As part of an archaeological assessment on a possible alignment for the proposed extension to the M80 Glasgow-Stirling motorway, geographysical survey S of the line of the Wall, itself inaccessible below a farm track, revealed a ditch running E-W, which may have flanked the Military Way, but no trace of the milefortlet long suspected hereabouts.

L J F Keppie 1995.

Activities

Excavation (1890 - 1893)

NS 7268 7624, NS 7271 7624, NS 7283 7625 and NS 7292 7626 Sections of Rampart and Expansions (see NS77NW 16) by Glasgow Archaeological Society in 1890-3 (Glasgow Archaeological Society 1899).

Excavation (1890 - 1893)

At NS 7305 7631, NS 7315 7641, NS 7325 7649, NS 7329 7653, NS 7353 7679, NS 7373 7689, NS 7378 7692, NS 7385 7694, NS 7390 7696, and NS 7393 7697 numerous sections of the Rampart were cut between 1890-3 (Glasgow Archaeological Society 1899).

Excavation (1890 - 1893)

NS 7103 7618, NS 7123 7619 and NS 7126 7619 Three sections were made through the Rampart and a fourth at NS 7132 7619 through the Rampart, Ditch and part of the Outer Mound (indicated) by Glasgow Archaeological Society between 1890 and 1893 (Glasgow Archaeological Society 1899).

Excavation (1890 - 1893)

NS 7091 7615, NS 7093 7616 and NS 7095 7616 Search holes for the Rampart kerb were dug from 1890-3 (Glasgow Archaeological Society 1899).

Casual Observation (1906)

NS 7387 7696 Wall exposed during construction of railway (Cochrane 1906).

Salvage Record (1906)

The Wall was exposed at NS 7386 7698 during construction of the railway. The Wall as viewed at Croy Hill is composed of turf, and no large stones are present. Taking a section of the turf construction it can be seen that it comprises different coloured earths. The soils are layered, the sections being transverse. There is a tracery of lines, varying from deep black, to deep red or purple, visible on the face of each section. In the sections at Croy and Barr Hills nineteen layers were revealed, their heights varying from 4ft 4 ins to 4ft 10 ins. From the evidence revealed by the soil layers it could be concluded that the wall may have been in the region of 10ft in height. Modern military precedent would suggest, according to the report of the Glasgow Archaeological Society, that "sods not over 6 ins. thick originally would, by the dressing or trimming necessary to fit them for their purpose, and by the weight of the sods built over them, be compressed into something like half that thickness." The average breadth of the stone base of the wall is 14 ft, and the 'berm is the ledge or platform' which is located between the edge of the ditch and the base of the wall itself. Earth from the ditch situated on the N side has been piled up with the apparent purpose of raising the height of the counterscarp, the average width of the ditch is about 40 ft and depth about 12 ft.

In order to reach the summit of Croy Hill, which is 460 ft above sea level, the vallum had to ascend 'steep and frequent' slopes, and there must have been considerable difficulty in digging the ditch. It was necessary, in some sections, to take the line through solid rock. The ditch is clearly visible right across Croy Hill.

Barr Hill, 464 ft above sea level, is then traversed by the vallum. In this area the ditch is 38 ft in width and retains its original and 'unmistakable V shape.'

Rel and Illust Arch 12 1906.

Excavation (1920)

NS 7332 7657 Rampart was exposed during excavations at Croy fort in 1920, 1931 and 1935 (See NS77NW 10) (Macdonald 1934, 1937).

Excavation (1931)

NS 7192 7619 The course of the Wall was determined by trenching in this area in 1931 (Macdonald 1934).

Excavation (1931)

NS 7332 7657 Rampart was exposed during excavations at Croy fort in 1920, 1931 and 1935 (See NS77NW 10) (Macdonald 1934, 1937).

Excavation (1931)

NS 7477 7718 Wall foundations were excavated in 1931 (Macdonald 1934).

Excavation (1931)

NS 7217 7623 and NS 7246 7622 The course of the Rampart was determined by trenching in these areas about 1931 (Macdonald 1934).

Field Visit (1934)

NS 7336 7664 Macdonald confirmed an 80 feet break in the Ditch owing to surface rock. (mentioned by Gordon). (Macdonald 1934)

Excavation (1935)

NS 7332 7657 Rampart was exposed during excavations at Croy fort in 1920, 1931 and 1935 (See NS77NW 10) (Macdonald 1934, 1937).

Field Visit (1946)

1946 revision to the 1913-14 OS survey.

Excavation (1957)

NS 7091 7615, NS 7093 7616 and NS 7095 7616 Old excavations were re-opened and new sections cut across the Rampart in 1957 on behalf of the Ministry of Public Buildings and Works in advance of afforestation.

Five of the Antonine Wall Committee's trenches were re-opened at this stage, and a further nine trenches cut, as a result of which the kerb of the Wall was located at ten points.

The new trenches were cut from the now ruined Bar Cottage to the NW side of Castle Hill. Gravel and stones were found in the first three, then the kerb was located in the next three trenches, in the last of which the foundation was found intact, and again the kerb was discovered in the last two trenches. Pegging the points where the kerb stones were found it was discovered that the line of the Wall tallied quite closely with that indicated by Sir George Macdonald's map (1934, Pl XXIV A). It pursues a straight course heading W from the Antonine Wall Committee's No. 1 section 'over the first ridge of Bar Hill' and descending then into the hollow. Gullies cut across the line at this point and these have probably obscured the foundations. Continuing W, the Wall turns slightly to the left until reaching the shoulder of Castle Hill, at which location it describes a curve in order to take advantage of the high ground. The three full sections cut on Bar Hill by the Antonine Wall Committee revealed a foundation of 4.3m in width.

(Keppie and Breeze 1982).

Excavation (1957)

Two old sections (NS 7123 7619 and NS 7132 7619) were re-opened on behalf of the then Ministry of Public Buildings and Works in 1957 prior to afforestation. Two others were not located. New sections were cut W of the ruined Bar Hill Cottage (Cruden 1957).

Excavation (1958)

NS 7458 7712 Remains of Wall and Military Way were excavated by the then Ministry of Public Buildings and Works in 1958 (Robertson 1973).

Excavation (1967)

The Croy Section No. II (NS 730 763) on the Antonine Wall, previously cut by the Glasgow Archaeological Society, and opened twice by the Society's Antonine Wall Committee, was reopened again in 1967. The width of the stone base of the Wall, from N kerb to S kerb (outer faces) was as expected, 14ft, but to the north of the N kerb stone, at a depth of almost 1ft below the level of the N kerb, there appears to be a lower band of large stones, with some laid turf above them. Above the 14ft-wide stone base, laid turf was in position to a height of only 3ft. as similarly described in the 1899 Report (Glasgow Archaeological Society 1899).

A S Robertson 1969

Excavation (1967)

NS 7283 7625 Old section through the Rampart and Expansion was re-opened in 1967 (see NS77NW 16) (Robertson 1967).

Aerial Photography (1971)

Oblique aerial photographs taken by Mr John Dewar in 1971.

Aerial Photography (1976)

Excavation (1977 - 1978)

NS 7322 7648 The Rampart was exposed during excavations at Croy Roman fortlet in 1977-8. (See NS77NW 29) (Hanson 1978, 1979).

Field Visit (1979)

NS 7087 7613 Ditch uncut at this point (Breeze 1979).

Casual Observation (1980)

NS 7438 7701 A pipe trench showed stone bottoming and stratified turf standing one and a half feet high (Information from J K St. Joseph to OS).

Aerial Photography (1980)

Field Visit (1980)

NS 7100 7619 to NS 7175 7620 Published course (OS 25 inch 1958) was resurveyed. The Ditch and Outer Mound are fairly well defined in the western part of this sector and where best preserved the Ditch averages 13m wide and c. 2.5m deep. The Rampart is only discernible for about 100m and forms a spread mound some 7m broad and 1m high. The overgrown depressions of the 1890-3 and 1957 Rampart trenches are still visible, but show no features.

Information from OS 1980

Field Visit (1980)

NS 7396 7700 to NS 7414 7705 The published survey (OS 25 inch 1958) was revised. The Ditch and Outer mound are well defined, though spread by ploughing. The Ditch is about 18m wide and up to 2m deep. There is no trace of the rampart. There is an obvious alignment angle at NS 7414 7705.

Information from OS 1980

Field Visit (1980)

NS 7414 7705 to NS 7455 7713 The published course (OS 25 inch 1958) was resurveyed. Recent land improvement has left only a shallow linear depression of the Ditch (shown as largely extant on the published 1958 plan).

Information from OS 1980

Field Visit (1980)

NS 7455 7713 to NS 7500 7722 The published survey (OS 25 inch 1958) was revised. The exact course is not in doubt, although the only intelligible remains of the Wall and Ditch are in the area of NS 7458 7712 where the sharp profile of the Ditch, about 2m deep and 12m wide, now appears as a burn gully. At this point an old excavation trench cuts the spread mound of the rampart; presumably that referred to at NS 7458 7712. No trace of Outer Mound; the slopes shown on the E side of East Dullatur farm indicate a natural scarp.

Information from OS 1980

Field Visit (1980)

NS 7321 7652 to NS 7397 7700 The published course (OS 25 inch map 1958) was resurveyed. The Ditch and Outer Mound are well defined but there are no intelligible traces of the Rampart. The Ditch averages 12m wide and 1.5m deep; the alignment positions are evident and are now shown in sympathy with the Rampart course.

Information from OS 1980

Field Visit (1980)

NS 7300 7629 to NS 7321 7652 The published course (OS 25 inch 1958) was resurveyed. The rock-cut Ditch and Outer Mound are well defined, as is a pronounced 'ridge' on top of the counterscarp, a feature unique to this sector. The Ditch is up to 8m wide and 1.5m deep and is forced, by the terrain, to assume an erratic course sharply in contrast to the 'straights and angles' construction elsewhere. The Rampart, however, maintains a series of straights and is partially extant as a much spread mound c 1m high. This section is under Scottish Development Department (Inspectorate of Ancient Monuments) Guardianship.

Information from OS 1980

Field Visit (1980)

NS 7246 7622 to NS 7300 7629 The published course (OS 25 inch 1958) was resurveyed. The rock-cut Ditch often no more than 4m to 5m wide is evident at the base of the cliff-line, and an Outer Mound, emphasising the natural scarp, is discernible. The Rampart is extant for c. 200m as a spread mound c. 6.5m broad and 0.8m high. W of the cliff-line the Ditch only is extant, assuming its normal width of about 12m, before fading near the quarry. This section is under Scottish Development Department (Inspectorate of Ancient Monuments) Guardianship.

Information from OS 1980

Field Visit (1980)

NS 7175 7620 to NS 7200 7621 Published survey (OS 25 inch 1958) revised. No surface trace of the Wall or Military Way. Macdonald's line accepted; the terrace through the cleared Girnal Hill wood was observed in 1957 (Information from OS 1957) as 0.8m high, but the area is now wasteland with dumping having obscured all trace.

Information from OS 1980

Field Visit (1980)

NS 7200 7621 to NS 7246 7622 The published survey (OS 25 inch 1958) has been revised. No surface trace: Macdonald's line accepted. Quarrying and tipping subsequent to his trenching has probably destroyed all remains.

Information from OS 1980

Field Visit (1980)

NS 7064 7600 to NS 7100 7619 The published course (OS 25 inch 1958) was resurveyed. The Ditch is fairly well defined and varies from 8m to 15m in width and from c.1m (on the W) to some 3m deep. It is likely that a c.50m length of Ditch was uncut at NS 7087 7613 owing to the slope and hardness of rock, but from surface evidence this is not obvious and it is possible that a narrowing of the Ditch has been effaced by later land usage and slip; there is a suggestion that the Outer Mound, elsewhere extant in this area, was continuous across this length. There are no intelligible remains of the Rampart, but the sharp terrain around the N side of Castle Hill should not have prevented a continuous, angled construction along a natural terrace. This section is under Scottish Development Department (Inspectorate of Ancient Monuments) Guardianship.

Information from OS 1980

Field Visit (1980)

NS 7000 7588 to NS 7064 7600 Published course (OS 25 inch 1958) was resurveyed. Though poorly defined through most of this sector and there are no intelligible remains of the Rampart or Outer Mound, the exact course is not in doubt and the line of the Ditch is traceable throughout. The Ditch varies from being an open, silted hollow 0.5 to 1m deep on the E, to an overgrown but sharply profiled hollow about 12m wide and up to 2.5m deep on the W. In the middle area, old mining activity has confused the line. The resurvey has revealed an original alignment angle W of Barr Farm, and at this point, in an arable field, the line of the Rampart was detected in 1980 as a differential crop growth. Part of this section is under the Scottish Development Department (Inspectorate of Ancient Monuments) Guardianship, from NS 7060 7598 to NS 7064 7600.

Information from OS 1980

Aerial Photography (1981)

Salvage Record (February 1982)

NS77NW 49.03 702 759

In February 1982 estate workers made an unauthorised N-S cut across the Antonine Wall on the W slope of Bar Hill, c.40m E of the now-demolished outbuildings of Bar Farm. A width of 0.9m was destroyed. The stone base was revealed, proving to be well preserved at a depth of 0.36 to 0.55m below the surface. It consisted of sandstone cobbles edged by large kerbs with a width of 4.25m. Above the stonework up to 0.3m of laid turfwork survived. The berm between the stone base and the ditch was 10m wide and the ditch itself, which was unaffected by the trench, was c.7.8m wide.

L J F Keppie and J J Walker 1990

Excavation (October 1982 - February 1984)

Excavation took place between October 1982 and February 1984. The ditch was located without difficulty as the S end can be seen as a shallow dip. The ditch, 2m wide and 0.5 to 0.7m deep, runs to the NW (towards the fort) before turning at right angles to the W, where it was followed for 25m; thereafter its course could not be established. The ditch may have been disturbed by mine workings as a pit shaft is visible nearby and a spread of cinders and coal was found overlying the natural clay in trenches close to this disturbance. It seemed reasonable to conclude that the ditch formed part of the defences of a temporary camp lying immediately SW of the fort (NS77NW 8).

L J F Keppie and J J Walker 1990

Aerial Photographic Interpretation (1982)

NS 7276 7376 Oblique aerial photographs (RCAHMS: DB/ 1384-8 cs, 1980) of the Wall reveal details of the Outer Mound including evidence of the dividing of labour stint between work-parties and what appears to be an extensive recutting of the Ditch.

N B Rankov 1982.

Aerial Photography (1982)

Augering Survey (February 1984)

NS77NW 49.02 746 772

The grounds of East Dullatur House were probed in February 1984 to determine the precise position and state of preservation of the Antonine Wall. No definite alignment for the wall's foundation could be established, though some stonework was located on a plateau W of the driveway, close to the modern surface, slightly N of the line shown on OS maps.

L J F Keppie and J J Walker 1990

Aerial Photography (1984)

Publication Account (1985)

Between the village ofCroy and Dullatur there is a well-preserved section of the ditch, which may be approached from the east end, if preffered the most noteworthy length, however, lies between Croy Village and the fort on Croy Hill. The only section of the rampalt to survive in this area is situated north-east of Croy Village, on the west flank of Croy Hilli it was paltially excavated in the late 19th century and was shown to stand to a height of 1.5 m with a battered or sloping front face. Also preserved in this short section of rampart are two beacon- or signalling-platforms built against the back of the WalL which appear as low mounds at either end of the surviving rampart. The fort lies 600m to the north-east, on the east flanks of the hill little can now be seen but excavations earlier this century revealed parts of the headqualters building, and a number of inscribed stones from the Croy Hill area show that a detachment of the Sixth Legion worked here at one period. The fort (now marked by a clump of trees) was attached to the rear of the Wall; a gap was left in the Wall for the fort gateway but no corresponding causeway was left in the ditch which was presumably crossed by a wooden bridge. More recent excavations have revealed the presence of an earlier fortI et (backing on to the Wall to the west of the fort) and traces of a possible civilian settlement (a vicus) to the south-west accompanied by a field-system on the south-east. The steepness of the north face of Croy Hill and the hardness of the rock posed considerable problems for the Wall builders. Much of the ditch in this sector is cut into extremely hard volcanic rock, and immediately north-north-east of the fort they finally gave up, leaving a portion of the ditch unexcavated. To the west of the fort the ground falls steeply to the north, and instead of dispensing with the ditch altogether and relying on the natural defences, the line of the ditch was swung westwards and doggedly continued below the steep face of the hill.

Information from ‘Exploring Scotland’s Heritage: The Clyde Estuary and Central Region’, (1985).

Excavation (30 November 1988)

The surviving remains of the Wall were subject to a two day excavation prior to proposed landscaping in the area, particularly concentrating on a field bounded on the W by Kilsyth Road and on the E by Nethercroy Road. In 1931 Sir George Macdonald noted that the width of the Wall base in this field was less than the usual 4.3 metres, and at one point was only 3.9 metres. Tracing was difficult due to ploughing and local small-scale quarrying, but the area was of interest being midway between the Bar Hill and Croy Hill Forts and thus a possibility for an interval fortlet, and also there was a question mark over the purpose behind a double change of direction of the wall-base.

In Area 1, beside Nethercroy Road, the N kerb and core, to a width of 3.9 kmetres, survived and scattered stones which may have originally formed the S kerb. In Area 2, 30 metres further W, the S kerb was discovered intact, plus a substantial part of the core which incorporated a culvert. This culvert was 0.2 metres in width and approximately 0.15 metres in depth. The N kerb, now lost, may have been at a position suggested by the neat edge of one slab. There was no surviving turfwork above the stone base, and only a few small lumps of turf slip. There were no indications of an installation or fortlet. At Area 5, about 7 metres further E, the alignment of the S kerb was again confirmed, although there was no sign of the N kerb. N of the main area it was possible to locate the S lip of the ditch, and in Area 3 the berm appeared to be about 9 metres wide. In Area 4, at the extreme W of the field, two small trenches turned up no trace of laid stonework.

This excavation was thus able to confirm the position of the Wall, at any rate in the E section of the field, where tolerable traces remain.

Information from L J F Keppie 1988; S S Frere 1989

Resistivity (1989)

NS77NW 49.01 723 762

The alignment of the Roman frontier was examined (in December 1988) in advance of landscaping. Beside Nethercroy Road, the stone base was found at a depth of 0.4m, on the line shown on OS maps. Further W, a culvert was found. No complete section was obtained owing to modern disturbance. Beside the Kilsyth Road (B802), attempts to locate the base were unsuccessful. Subsequently, a geophysical survey was undertaken by a team from Bradford Universitty. This suggested an alignment radically different from that shown by the OS; a further excavation is planned.

Sponsor: Strathclyde Regional Council, Dept of Planning.

L Keppie 1989; L J F Keppie et al. 1995.

Five trenches were opened in the field between the Nether Croy and Kilsyth roads. The Wall was badly preserved with no turfwork visible, but the line established by Macdonald in 1931 was confirmed and at one point a culvert was noted; it was 0.2m wide and c.0.15m deep. No traces of a fortlet were seen.

S S Frere 1989.

A length of c.400m of the Antonine frontier was examined prior to possible landscaping, to the E and to the W of the Nethercroy Road. Though the zone E of Nethercroy Road has been badly disfigured by quarrying, coal yards and other industrial activities, the stone base of the Antonine Wall had survived in places, as had the accompanying ditch. At one point the base was found to have a width of 4.2m. The ditch was c9.6m wide. The berm and S faec of the ditch utilised a natural ridge of rock, running E-W. To the W of the Nethercroy Road the remains lie in farmland. The result of the resistivity survey undertaken in 1989 was not confirmed in practice, and the stone base of the Wall (4.2m wide) and the S edge of the ditch were pinpointed on the traditionnal alignment. The stone base of the Wall survived best at the W and E ends of the Field, but was largely ploughed away at the centre. The opportunity was also taken to plot the line of the Military Way. A well-made surface, 3.5m wide was located, accompanied by a drainage gully on its N side. There were no small finds of Roman date.

Sponsors: Strathclyde Regional Council.

L J F Keppie and J J Walker 1990; L J F Keppie et al. 1995.

Publication Account (1989)

Five trenches were opened in the field between the Nether Croy and Kilsyth roads. The Wall was badly preserved with no turfwork visible, but the line established by Macdonald in 1931 was confirmed and at one point a culvert was noted; it was 0.2m wide and c.0.15m deep. No traces of a fortlet were seen.

S S Frere 1989.

Resistivity (1989)

NS77NW 49.01 723 762

Zone C: Desolate wasteland; Not surveyed

The alignment of the Roman frontier was examined (in December 1988) in advance of landscaping. Beside Nethercroy Road, the stone base was found at a depth of 0.4m, on the line shown on OS maps. Further W, a culvert was found. No complete section was obtained owing to modern disturbance. Beside the Kilsyth Road (B802), attempts to locate the base were unsuccessful. Subsequently, a geophysical survey was undertaken by a team from Bradford Universitty. This suggested an alignment radically different from that shown by the OS; a further excavation is planned.

Sponsor: Strathclyde Regional Council, Dept of Planning.

L Keppie 1989; L J F Keppie et al. 1995.

Five trenches were opened in the field between the Nether Croy and Kilsyth roads. The Wall was badly preserved with no turfwork visible, but the line established by Macdonald in 1931 was confirmed and at one point a culvert was noted; it was 0.2m wide and c.0.15m deep. No traces of a fortlet were seen.

S S Frere 1989.

A length of c.400m of the Antonine frontier was examined prior to possible landscaping, to the E and to the W of the Nethercroy Road. Though the zone E of Nethercroy Road has been badly disfigured by quarrying, coal yards and other industrial activities, the stone base of the Antonine Wall had survived in places, as had the accompanying ditch. At one point the base was found to have a width of 4.2m. The ditch was c9.6m wide. The berm and S faec of the ditch utilised a natural ridge of rock, running E-W. To the W of the Nethercroy Road the remains lie in farmland. The result of the resistivity survey undertaken in 1989 was not confirmed in practice, and the stone base of the Wall (4.2m wide) and the S edge of the ditch were pinpointed on the traditionnal alignment. The stone base of the Wall survived best at the W and E ends of the Field, but was largely ploughed away at the centre. The opportunity was also taken to plot the line of the Military Way. A well-made surface, 3.5m wide was located, accompanied by a drainage gully on its N side. There were no small finds of Roman date.

Sponsors: Strathclyde Regional Council.

L J F Keppie and J J Walker 1990; L J F Keppie et al. 1995.

Resistivity (1989)

NS77NW 49.01 723 762

The alignment of the Roman frontier was examined (in December 1988) in advance of landscaping. Beside Nethercroy Road, the stone base was found at a depth of 0.4m, on the line shown on OS maps. Further W, a culvert was found. No complete section was obtained owing to modern disturbance. Beside the Kilsyth Road (B802), attempts to locate the base were unsuccessful. Subsequently, a geophysical survey was undertaken by a team from Bradford Universitty. This suggested an alignment radically different from that shown by the OS; a further excavation is planned.

Sponsor: Strathclyde Regional Council, Dept of Planning.

L Keppie 1989; L J F Keppie et al. 1995.

Five trenches were opened in the field between the Nether Croy and Kilsyth roads. The Wall was badly preserved with no turfwork visible, but the line established by Macdonald in 1931 was confirmed and at one point a culvert was noted; it was 0.2m wide and c.0.15m deep. No traces of a fortlet were seen.

S S Frere 1989.

A length of c.400m of the Antonine frontier was examined prior to possible landscaping, to the E and to the W of the Nethercroy Road. Though the zone E of Nethercroy Road has been badly disfigured by quarrying, coal yards and other industrial activities, the stone base of the Antonine Wall had survived in places, as had the accompanying ditch. At one point the base was found to have a width of 4.2m. The ditch was c9.6m wide. The berm and S faec of the ditch utilised a natural ridge of rock, running E-W. To the W of the Nethercroy Road the remains lie in farmland. The result of the resistivity survey undertaken in 1989 was not confirmed in practice, and the stone base of the Wall (4.2m wide) and the S edge of the ditch were pinpointed on the traditionnal alignment. The stone base of the Wall survived best at the W and E ends of the Field, but was largely ploughed away at the centre. The opportunity was also taken to plot the line of the Military Way. A well-made surface, 3.5m wide was located, accompanied by a drainage gully on its N side. There were no small finds of Roman date.

Sponsors: Strathclyde Regional Council.

L J F Keppie and J J Walker 1990; L J F Keppie et al. 1995.

Excavation (September 1990)

The course of the wall was traced across NS 7215 7622 to NS 7250 7622. A geophysical survey in 1989 by Bradford University had suggested an alignment radically different from the traditional one plotted on OS maps; this was found to be erroneous, having been caused by a ridge of rock. The true line was established in Trenches 4 - 5 slightly N of that shown by the OS. Here the stone base was 4.2m wide with good kerbs. In Trenches 6 - 8, c.20m to the E, the stone base was missing, but the ditch was located. The berm in area B is c.9m wide. In Area C, where there is much disturbance by recent quarrying, the stone foundation was found to be increasingly robbed out, but the surviving section was 4.2m wide and the Ditch had a width of 9.2m, although nothing remained of an upcast mound.

S S Frere 1991.

NS77NW 49.01 723 762

Aerial Photography (1991)

Publication Account (1991)

The course of the wall was traced across NS 7215 7622 to NS 7250 7622. A geophysical survey in 1989 by Bradford University had suggested an alignment radically different from the traditional one plotted on OS maps; this was found to be erroneous, having been caused by a ridge of rock. The true line was established in Trenches 4 - 5 slightly N of that shown by the OS. Here the stone base was 4.2m wide with good kerbs. In Trenches 6 - 8, c.20m to the E, the stone base was missing, but the ditch was located. The berm in area B is c.9m wide. In Area C, where there is much disturbance by recent quarrying, the stone foundation was found to be increasingly robbed out, but the surviving section was 4.2m wide and the Ditch had a width of 9.2m, although nothing remained of an upcast mound.

S S Frere 1991.

NS77NW 49.01 723 762

Magnetometry (April 1994 - June 1994)

NS77NW 49.04 718 762

Area B2

As part of an archaeological assessment on a possible alignment for the proposed extension to the M80 Glasgow-Stirling motorway, geographysical survey S of the line of the Wall, itself inaccessible below a farm track, revealed a ditch running E-W, which may have flanked the Military Way, but no trace of the milefortlet long suspected hereabouts.

L J F Keppie 1995.

Resistivity (April 1994 - June 1994)

NS77NW 49.04 718 762

Area C

As part of an archaeological assessment on a possible alignment for the proposed extension to the M80 Glasgow-Stirling motorway, geographysical survey S of the line of the Wall, itself inaccessible below a farm track, revealed a ditch running E-W, which may have flanked the Military Way, but no trace of the milefortlet long suspected hereabouts.

L J F Keppie 1995.

Magnetometry (April 1994 - June 1994)

NS77NW 49.04 718 762

Area C

As part of an archaeological assessment on a possible alignment for the proposed extension to the M80 Glasgow-Stirling motorway, geographysical survey S of the line of the Wall, itself inaccessible below a farm track, revealed a ditch running E-W, which may have flanked the Military Way, but no trace of the milefortlet long suspected hereabouts.

L J F Keppie 1995.

Magnetometry (April 1994 - June 1994)

NS77NW 49.04 718 762

Area B5

As part of an archaeological assessment on a possible alignment for the proposed extension to the M80 Glasgow-Stirling motorway, geographysical survey S of the line of the Wall, itself inaccessible below a farm track, revealed a ditch running E-W, which may have flanked the Military Way, but no trace of the milefortlet long suspected hereabouts.

L J F Keppie 1995.

Resistivity (April 1994 - June 1994)

NS77NW 49.04 718 762

Area B5

As part of an archaeological assessment on a possible alignment for the proposed extension to the M80 Glasgow-Stirling motorway, geographysical survey S of the line of the Wall, itself inaccessible below a farm track, revealed a ditch running E-W, which may have flanked the Military Way, but no trace of the milefortlet long suspected hereabouts.

L J F Keppie 1995.

Magnetometry (April 1994 - June 1994)

NS77NW 49.04 718 762

Area B4

As part of an archaeological assessment on a possible alignment for the proposed extension to the M80 Glasgow-Stirling motorway, geographysical survey S of the line of the Wall, itself inaccessible below a farm track, revealed a ditch running E-W, which may have flanked the Military Way, but no trace of the milefortlet long suspected hereabouts.

L J F Keppie 1995.

Resistivity (April 1994 - June 1994)

NS77NW 49.04 718 762

Area B4

As part of an archaeological assessment on a possible alignment for the proposed extension to the M80 Glasgow-Stirling motorway, geographysical survey S of the line of the Wall, itself inaccessible below a farm track, revealed a ditch running E-W, which may have flanked the Military Way, but no trace of the milefortlet long suspected hereabouts.

L J F Keppie 1995.

Magnetometry (April 1994 - June 1994)

NS77NW 49.04 718 762

Area B3

As part of an archaeological assessment on a possible alignment for the proposed extension to the M80 Glasgow-Stirling motorway, geographysical survey S of the line of the Wall, itself inaccessible below a farm track, revealed a ditch running E-W, which may have flanked the Military Way, but no trace of the milefortlet long suspected hereabouts.

L J F Keppie 1995.

Resistivity (April 1994 - June 1994)

NS77NW 49.04 718 762

Area B3

As part of an archaeological assessment on a possible alignment for the proposed extension to the M80 Glasgow-Stirling motorway, geographysical survey S of the line of the Wall, itself inaccessible below a farm track, revealed a ditch running E-W, which may have flanked the Military Way, but no trace of the milefortlet long suspected hereabouts.

L J F Keppie 1995.

Resistivity (April 1994 - June 1994)

NS77NW 49.04 718 762

Area B2

As part of an archaeological assessment on a possible alignment for the proposed extension to the M80 Glasgow-Stirling motorway, geographysical survey S of the line of the Wall, itself inaccessible below a farm track, revealed a ditch running E-W, which may have flanked the Military Way, but no trace of the milefortlet long suspected hereabouts.

L J F Keppie 1995.

Magnetometry (April 1994 - June 1994)

NS77NW 49.04 718 762

Area B1

As part of an archaeological assessment on a possible alignment for the proposed extension to the M80 Glasgow-Stirling motorway, geographysical survey S of the line of the Wall, itself inaccessible below a farm track, revealed a ditch running E-W, which may have flanked the Military Way, but no trace of the milefortlet long suspected hereabouts.

L J F Keppie 1995.

Resistivity (April 1994 - June 1994)

NS77NW 49.04 718 762

Area B1

As part of an archaeological assessment on a possible alignment for the proposed extension to the M80 Glasgow-Stirling motorway, geographysical survey S of the line of the Wall, itself inaccessible below a farm track, revealed a ditch running E-W, which may have flanked the Military Way, but no trace of the milefortlet long suspected hereabouts.

L J F Keppie 1995.

Field Visit (1994)

Part of investigation into extension to M80 motorway.

O'Sullivan, J.

Resistivity (May 1995)

NS 706 759. A geophysical survey was conducted in the field immediately to the W of the Bar Hill Roman site. This was to confirm the route of the Antonine Rampart and to test whether evidence of possible extensions of the wall-base, projecting to the S, could be detected. Significant variation in resistivity did occur at several zones (each possibly extending about 4m to the S) along the southern edge of the wall-base. Also S of the wall, the Military Way (4-4.5m wide) appears to run about 8m distant but possibly converging towards the wall near the western gate of the field.

A Strang and J Walker 1995.

Resistivity (May 1995)

NS 706 759. A geophysical survey was conducted in the field immediately to the W of the Bar Hill Roman site. This was to confirm the route of the Antonine Rampart and to test whether evidence of possible extensions of the wall-base, projecting to the S, could be detected. Significant variation in resistivity did occur at several zones (each possibly extending about 4m to the S) along the southern edge of the wall-base. Also S of the wall, the Military Way (4-4.5m wide) appears to run about 8m distant but possibly converging towards the wall near the western gate of the field.

A Strang and J Walker 1995.

Resistivity (May 1995)

NS 706 759. A geophysical survey was conducted in the field immediately to the W of the Bar Hill Roman site. This was to confirm the route of the Antonine Rampart and to test whether evidence of possible extensions of the wall-base, projecting to the S, could be detected. Significant variation in resistivity did occur at several zones (each possibly extending about 4m to the S) along the southern edge of the wall-base. Also S of the wall, the Military Way (4-4.5m wide) appears to run about 8m distant but possibly converging towards the wall near the western gate of the field.

A Strang and J Walker 1995.

Resistivity (May 1995)

NS 706 759. A geophysical survey was conducted in the field immediately to the W of the Bar Hill Roman site. This was to confirm the route of the Antonine Rampart and to test whether evidence of possible extensions of the wall-base, projecting to the S, could be detected. Significant variation in resistivity did occur at several zones (each possibly extending about 4m to the S) along the southern edge of the wall-base. Also S of the wall, the Military Way (4-4.5m wide) appears to run about 8m distant but possibly converging towards the wall near the western gate of the field.

A Strang and J Walker 1995.

Resistivity (May 1995)

NS 706 759. A geophysical survey was conducted in the field immediately to the W of the Bar Hill Roman site. This was to confirm the route of the Antonine Rampart and to test whether evidence of possible extensions of the wall-base, projecting to the S, could be detected. Significant variation in resistivity did occur at several zones (each possibly extending about 4m to the S) along the southern edge of the wall-base. Also S of the wall, the Military Way (4-4.5m wide) appears to run about 8m distant but possibly converging towards the wall near the western gate of the field.

A Strang and J Walker 1995.

Resistivity (May 1995)

NS 706 759. A geophysical survey was conducted in the field immediately to the W of the Bar Hill Roman site. This was to confirm the route of the Antonine Rampart and to test whether evidence of possible extensions of the wall-base, projecting to the S, could be detected. Significant variation in resistivity did occur at several zones (each possibly extending about 4m to the S) along the southern edge of the wall-base. Also S of the wall, the Military Way (4-4.5m wide) appears to run about 8m distant but possibly converging towards the wall near the western gate of the field.

A Strang and J Walker 1995.

Resistivity (May 1995)

NS 706 759. A geophysical survey was conducted in the field immediately to the W of the Bar Hill Roman site. This was to confirm the route of the Antonine Rampart and to test whether evidence of possible extensions of the wall-base, projecting to the S, could be detected. Significant variation in resistivity did occur at several zones (each possibly extending about 4m to the S) along the southern edge of the wall-base. Also S of the wall, the Military Way (4-4.5m wide) appears to run about 8m distant but possibly converging towards the wall near the western gate of the field.

A Strang and J Walker 1995.

Resistivity (May 1995)

NS 706 759. A geophysical survey was conducted in the field immediately to the W of the Bar Hill Roman site. This was to confirm the route of the Antonine Rampart and to test whether evidence of possible extensions of the wall-base, projecting to the S, could be detected. Significant variation in resistivity did occur at several zones (each possibly extending about 4m to the S) along the southern edge of the wall-base. Also S of the wall, the Military Way (4-4.5m wide) appears to run about 8m distant but possibly converging towards the wall near the western gate of the field.

A Strang and J Walker 1995.

Resistivity (May 1995)

NS 706 759. A geophysical survey was conducted in the field immediately to the W of the Bar Hill Roman site. This was to confirm the route of the Antonine Rampart and to test whether evidence of possible extensions of the wall-base, projecting to the S, could be detected. Significant variation in resistivity did occur at several zones (each possibly extending about 4m to the S) along the southern edge of the wall-base. Also S of the wall, the Military Way (4-4.5m wide) appears to run about 8m distant but possibly converging towards the wall near the western gate of the field.

A Strang and J Walker 1995.

Resistivity (May 1995)

NS 706 759. A geophysical survey was conducted in the field immediately to the W of the Bar Hill Roman site. This was to confirm the route of the Antonine Rampart and to test whether evidence of possible extensions of the wall-base, projecting to the S, could be detected. Significant variation in resistivity did occur at several zones (each possibly extending about 4m to the S) along the southern edge of the wall-base. Also S of the wall, the Military Way (4-4.5m wide) appears to run about 8m distant but possibly converging towards the wall near the western gate of the field.

A Strang and J Walker 1995.

Publication Account (1995)

NS77NW 49.01 723 762

The alignment of the Roman frontier was examined (in December 1988) in advance of landscaping. Beside Nethercroy Road, the stone base was found at a depth of 0.4m, on the line shown on OS maps. Further W, a culvert was found. No complete section was obtained owing to modern disturbance. Beside the Kilsyth Road (B802), attempts to locate the base were unsuccessful. Subsequently, a geophysical survey was undertaken by a team from Bradford Universitty. This suggested an alignment radically different from that shown by the OS; a further excavation is planned.

Sponsor: Strathclyde Regional Council, Dept of Planning.

L Keppie 1989; L J F Keppie et al. 1995.

A length of c.400m of the Antonine frontier was examined prior to possible landscaping, to the E and to the W of the Nethercroy Road. Though the zone E of Nethercroy Road has been badly disfigured by quarrying, coal yards and other industrial activities, the stone base of the Antonine Wall had survived in places, as had the accompanying ditch. At one point the base was found to have a width of 4.2m. The ditch was c9.6m wide. The berm and S face of the ditch utilised a natural ridge of rock, running E-W. To the W of the Nethercroy Road the remains lie in farmland. The result of the resistivity survey undertaken in 1989 was not confirmed in practice, and the stone base of the Wall (4.2m wide) and the S edge of the ditch were pinpointed on the traditional alignment. The stone base of the Wall survived best at the W and E ends of the Field, but was largely ploughed away at the centre. The opportunity was also taken to plot the line of the Military Way. A well-made surface, 3.5m wide was located, accompanied by a drainage gully on its N side. There were no small finds of Roman date.

Sponsors: Strathclyde Regional Council.

L J F Keppie and J J Walker 1990; L J F Keppie et al. 1995.

Aerial Photography (4 March 1997)

Aerial Photography (25 September 1997)

Aerial Photography (8 May 1998)

Aerial Photography (11 May 1998)

Excavation (1 May 2002)

NS77NW 133 749 770

NS 749 770 The site lay to the S of the line of the Antonine Wall. Eleven large evaluation trenches were excavated, but revealed little more than field drains and a field boundary.

Archive to be deposited in the NMRS.

Sponsor: Dickie Homes

D Connolly 2002

Aerial Photography (28 July 2003)

Archaeological Evaluation (May 2003 - June 2003)

NS77NW 153 7236 7616

NS 723 761 An evaluation was undertaken in May and June 2003, pre-demolition, in advance of the construction of a new community building on the site of an existing Welfare Club. The site lies immediately to the S of the course of the Antonine Wall, and the course of the military way was thought to cross the site. Eight trenches were excavated within the development, covering 10% of the available area.

Three trenches, located in the NW half of the footprint of the new building, contained archaeological features of probable Iron Age or Roman date, including a large fire-pit, two large quarry pits and two possible ditches or gullies. A fragment of Roman or Iron Age pottery and a late prehistoric or Roman quernstone were recovered during the works.

After the demolition of the standing building, a watching brief was undertaken on the excavation of internal pads and foundation trenches for the new building. Features were encountered in four trenches, and included a second fire-pit, a small quarry pit, the continuation of one of the ditches seen in the evaluation, and a series of narrow linear features thought to be post-medieval cultivation furrows.

Archive to be deposited in the NMRS.

Sponsor: Croy Miners Welfare Charitable Society.

E Jones and R Coleman 2003.

Aerial Photography (3 August 2006)

Magnetometry (22 May 2006 - 20 June 2006)

NS 7073 7592 A magnetic survey of nearly 3ha was conducted to the W, S and E of the fort in May 2006. Weak anomalies appeared immediately W of the fort which are unlikely to relate to Roman structures. From the SW corner of the fort a ditch continued westwards, following the course of the modern pathway to the site. In the field to the S and SW of the field several anomalies were detected, some of them due to 19th-century industrial workings, others perhaps relating to the fort. Two small areas were investigated in wooded land on the E side of the fort.

Location of archive to be determined.

Sponsor: EU Culture 2000

Richard Jones, 2006.

Aerial Photography (8 September 2006)

Watching Brief (19 November 2010 - 28 June 2011)

Archaeological monitoring works were carried out in support of Access Improvement works along the line of the Antonine Wall and surrounding areas. Despite the fact the all of the archaeologically monitored excavation works took place within the boundary of the Scheduled Monument the Antonine Wall no significant archaeological features were observed and no anthropic material was recovered other than would relate to the modern (20th or 21st century) use of the site. The most likely explanation for the lack of significant material is the small nature of the excavations and the fact that they were often carried out on sites of previous modern disturbance.

Information from OASIS ID: rathmell1-98131 (T Rees) 2011

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