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Desk Based Assessment

Date 1968

Event ID 688874

Category Recording

Type Desk Based Assessment


NO50NE 6.00 5998 0583

(Name NO 5998 0584). The Coves (NAT)

OS 6" map, (1912-38)

NO50NE 6.01 NO 5994 0581 Hermit's Well

The Coves - Two coves to the SE of Barnsmuir, on the sea shore, supposed to have been used by hermits or monks from the introduction of Christianity till the Reformation.

Original Name Book 1854

The Caves of Caiplie are situated in the parish of Kilrenny on the farm of Barnsmuir and have been formed by sea action.

One of the largest, called the Chapel Cave, measures 40ft from the entrance. It is irregular in shape and has been enlarged artificially. A wall closed it to the sea, but only the foundations remain. A pointed doorway on the S side opens into an outer narrow cave.

In various parts of the cave there are many small crosses on the walls, including a few modern ones, a cross of Greek form in a surrounding line, and many Latin crosses. Also in various parts of the cave, but especially in the narrow recess at the W end, holes have been cut in pairs in the rock to form "holdfasts" for passing ropes through.

About thirty six years ago, (c.1831) when Mr John Mackinlay surveyed the cave, it was more complete, in particular, a small chamber cut out of the rock above and arched over, and reached by steps cut out of the rock. This cell had later been used as a pigeon house.

In 1841, the flanking rock on the E side in front of the caves was found to be scooped out to form a niche or small grotto, with a seat in the inner end. The floor of the Chapel Cave was found to be clay, and outside the wall at its mouth was another and lower foundation, forming a terrace 4ft wide in front of the cave. The cave to the E was found

to be partly paved and partly levelled by rock. In front of this cave, human remains were found buried. Animal bones were found in front of and within the Chapel Cave.

The cave may be associated with the early preachers of the gospel. Traditionally, St Adrian founded a settlement on this part of the Fife coast about the middle of the 9th century. "Than Adriane wyth bys Cumpany "To gydder come to Caplawchy." (Wyntoun)

J Stuart 1867.

Information taken from Stuart. "There can be no doubt that Caiplie is the Caplawchy mentioned by Wyntoun as the place to which Adrian and his company came."

D H Fleming 1886.

Wace and Jehu date some crosses & animal representions on the walls of Constantine's Cave (NO61SW 6) to the Celtic Period, roughly AD800-1000, and then remark that at this time Constantine's Cave "was perhaps used as a chapel or hermitage, as apparently was the case with the caves at Caiplie, near Crail."

A V B Wace and Prof Jehu 1915.

Caiplie Cave. A natural cove artificially enlarged for use as a cell or dwelling place. The foundation of the wall at the mouth is slightly curved. The axis is NW-SE and most of the sculpturings are on the NE side.

RCAHMS 1933.

Information from OS.

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